Windows 10 1703 download iso itar-tass – The Straits Times, 4 April 1997
Windows 10 1703 download iso itar-tass
Unlike other principalities, Moscow was not divided among his sons, but was passed intact to his eldest. Moscow’s opposition against foreign domination grew. The battle, however, was not decisive and only two years later Moscow was sacked by khan Tokhtamysh.
In , the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow , burning everything but the Kremlin. In , the Swedish army led by Count Jacob De la Gardie and Evert Horn started their march from Great Novgorod toward Moscow to help Tsar Vasili Shuiski , entered Moscow in and suppressed the rebellion against the Tsar, but left it early in , following which the Polish—Lithuanian army invaded.
The 17th century was rich in popular risings, such as the liberation of Moscow from the Polish—Lithuanian invaders , the Salt Riot , the Copper Riot , and the Moscow Uprising of The plague epidemics ravaged Moscow in —, and — The Plague of was the last massive outbreak of plague in central Russia, claiming up to , lives in Moscow alone.
As many as , died during this time, and only a few tens of thousands of ravaged troops returned. In , sixteen divisions of the national volunteers more than , people , twenty-five battalions 18, people and four engineering regiments were formed among the Muscovites.
Many factories were evacuated, together with most of the government, and from 20 October the city was declared to be under siege. Its remaining inhabitants built and supervised antitank defenses, while the city was subjected to air bombing.
Joseph Stalin refused to leave Moscow, meaning that the general staff and the council of people’s commissars remained in the city as well. Despite the siege and the bombings, the construction of Moscow’s metro system continued through the war, and by the end of the war several new metro lines were opened. Both German and Soviet casualties during the battle of Moscow have been a subject of debate, as various sources provide somewhat different estimates. Total casualties between 30 September , and 7 January , are estimated to be between , and , for the Wehrmacht and between , and 1,, for the Red Army.
On 1 May , a medal For the defense of Moscow and in another medal In memory of the th anniversary of Moscow were introduced. In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the victory over Nazi Germany , on May 8, , Moscow became one of twelve Soviet cities awarded the Hero City title. In , it hosted the Summer Olympic Games , which were boycotted by the United States and several other Western countries due to the Soviet Union’s involvement in Afghanistan in late In , Moscow was the scene of the failed coup attempt by the government members opposed to the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev.
Since then, the emergence of a market economy in Moscow has produced an explosion of Western-style retailing, services, architecture , and lifestyles. This city hosted the World Championships in Athletics.
Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River, which flows for just over km mi through the East European Plain in central Russia. Teplostanskaya highland is the city’s highest point at metres feet. Moscow serves as the reference point for the timezone used in most of Central Russia, including Saint Petersburg. Daylight saving time is no longer observed. The highest temperature ever recorded was Snow, which is present for three to five months a year, often begins to fall at the end of November and melts by mid-March.
Template:Moscow weatherbox. Moscow, being in the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere, is a place with the most expressed signs of global warming. Thus the climate becomes less stable, but the average yearly temperature is growing. So, the period from July until the beginning of August has become considerably warmer.
During this time periods of extreme heat are often observed in the city , , , , At the end of January—February it is often colder , , The last decade was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations of Moscow.
Temperature changes in the city are depicted in the table below:. According to the results of the Census, the population of Moscow was 11,,;  up from 10,, recorded in the Census.
At the time of the official Census, the ethnic makeup of the city’s population whose ethnicity was known 10,, people was: . The official population of Moscow is based on those holding “permanent residency. The number of unofficial guests, those without proper documentation, the vast majority from Central Asia, is estimated to be an additional 1 million people,  for a total population of about Cathedral of Christ the Saviour , demolished during the Soviet period, was reconstructed during — Christianity is the predominant religion in the city, of which the Russian Orthodox Church is the most popular.
Moscow is Russia’s capital of Orthodox Christianity. The Patriarch of Moscow serves as the head of the church and resides in the Danilov Monastery. In Bolsheviks’ government declared Russia a secular state, which actually meant that religion was outlawed and society was to become totally atheistic.
During the period of s a great number of churches in Moscow were demolished, including historical Chudov Monastery in Kremlin, dating from the 14th century, Kazansky Cathedral on the Red Square, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior , constructed in the 19th century in memory of a victory over the Napoleon army in , and many more. It still continued even after WW II, in s, when persecutions against religion in Soviet Union became less severe. Most of the surviving churches and monasteries were closed and then used as clubs, offices, factories and even warehouses.
Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union in many of the destroyed churches have been restored and traditional religions are once again gaining popularity. Among the churches reconstructed in s is an impressive Cathedral of Christ the Savior which once more has become one of the most picturesque landmarks of the city.
People over 30 years old still remember a huge open swimming-pool which was located on the site of the demolished cathedral till Muslims constitute around 1. Saint Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow, the masterpiece of Russian architecture. The Shukhov Tower in Moscow. Currently under threat of demolition, the tower is at the top of UNESCO ‘s Endangered Buildings list and there is an international campaign to save it.
Ostankino Tower. Moscow’s architecture is world-renowned. The first Kremlin was built in the middle of the 12th century. Medieval Moscow’s design was of concentric walls and intersecting radial thoroughfares. This layout, as well as Moscow’s rivers, helped shape Moscow’s design in subsequent centuries. The Kremlin was rebuilt in the 15th century. Its towers and some of its churches were built by Italian architects, lending the city some of the aura of the renaissance.
From the end of the 15th century, the city was embellished by increasing numbers of masonry structures such as monasteries, palaces, walls, towers, and churches. The city’s appearance had not changed much by the 18th century. Houses were made of pine and spruce logs, with shingled roofs plastered with sod or covered by birch bark. The rebuilding of Moscow in the second half of the 18th century was necessitated not only by constant fires, but also the needs of the nobility.
Much of the wooden city was replaced by buildings in the classical style. For much of its architectural history, Moscow was dominated by Orthodox churches.
However, the overall appearance of the city changed drastically during Soviet times, especially as a result of Joseph Stalin’s large-scale effort to “modernize” Moscow.
Stalin’s plans for the city included a network of broad avenues and roadways, some of them over ten lanes wide, which, while greatly simplifying movement through the city, were constructed at the expense of a great number of historical buildings and districts.
Among the many casualties of Stalin’s socialist reforms was the Sukharev Tower , a longtime city landmark, as well as numerous mansions and commercial buildings lining the major streets. The city’s newfound status as the capital of a deeply secular , totalitarian nation, made religiously significant buildings especially vulnerable to demolition.
Many of the city’s churches, which in most cases were some of Moscow’s oldest and most prominent buildings, were destroyed; some notable examples include the Kazan Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior.
During the s, both were rebuilt. Many smaller churches, however, were lost. While the later Stalinist period was characterized by the curtailing of creativity and architectural innovation, the earlier post-revolutionary years saw a plethora of radical new buildings created in the city. Another prominent architect was Vladimir Shukhov , famous for Shukhov Tower, just one of many hyperboloid towers designed by Shukhov. It was built between and as a transmission tower for a Russian broadcasting company.
He designed spacious elongated shop galleries, most notably the GUM department store on Red Square ,  bridged with innovative metal-and-glass vaults.
Triumphal Arch of Moscow , was built from — Perhaps the most recognizable contributions of the Stalinist period are the so-called Seven Sisters , comprising seven massive skyscrapers scattered throughout the city at about an equal distance from the Kremlin.
The Soviet goal of providing housing for every family, and the rapid growth of Moscow’s population, led to the construction of large, monotonous housing blocks. Most of these date from the post-Stalin era and the styles are often named after the leader then in power Brezhnev, Khrushchev, etc. They are usually badly maintained. Although the city still has some five-story apartment buildings constructed before the mids, more recent apartment buildings are usually at least 9 floors tall, and have elevators.
It is estimated that Moscow has over twice as many elevators as New York City and four times as many as Chicago. Moslift, one of the city’s major elevator operating companies, has about elevator mechanics on call, to release residents trapped in elevators. Stalinist-era buildings, mostly found in the central part of the city, are massive and usually ornamented with Socialist realism motifs that imitate classical themes.
However, small churches — almost always Eastern Orthodox — found across the city provide glimpses of its past. The Old Arbat Street , a popular tourist street that was once the heart of a bohemian area, preserves most of its buildings from prior to the 20th century. Ostankino Palace , Kuskovo , Uzkoye and other large estates just outside Moscow originally belong to nobles from the Tsarist era, and some convents and monasteries , both inside and outside the city, are open to Muscovites and tourists.
There are a few examples of notable, early Soviet avant-garde work too, such as the house of the architect Konstantin Melnikov in the Arbat area. Many of these restorations were criticized for alleged disrespect of historical authenticity.
Facadism is also widely practiced. Plaques on house exteriors will inform passers-by that a well-known personality once lived there. Frequently, the plaques are dedicated to Soviet celebrities not well-known outside or often, like with decorated generals and revolutionaries, now both inside of Russia.
There are also many “museum houses” of famous Russian writers, composers, and artists in the city. In recent years, the city administration has been widely criticized for heavy destruction that has affected many historical buildings. As much as a third of historic Moscow has been destroyed in the past few years  to make space for luxury apartments and hotels.
Critics also blame the government for not enforcing conservation laws: in the last 12 years more than 50 buildings with monument status were torn down, several of those dating back to the 17th century.
Some organizations, such as Moscow Architecture Preservation Society and Save Europe’s Heritage , are trying to draw the international public attention to these problems.
Tsaritsyno Park and palace. Novodevichy Convent is one of the World Heritage Sites. There are 96 parks and 18 gardens in Moscow, including 4 botanical gardens. There are also square kilometres sq mi of green zones besides square kilometres 39 sq mi of forests.
There are on average 27 square meters sq ft of parks per person in Moscow compared with 6 for Paris , 7. The Garden features the Green Theater, one of the largest open amphitheaters in Europe, able to hold up to 15 thousand people.
Several parks include a section known as a “Park of Culture and Rest”, sometimes alongside a much wilder area this includes parks such as Izmaylovsky, Fili and Sokolniki. Some parks are designated as Forest Parks lesopark. Izmaylovsky Park , created in , is one of the largest urban parks in the world along with Richmond Park in London. Its area of Sokolniki Park , named after the falcon hunting that occurred there in the past, is one of the oldest parks in Moscow and has an area of 6 square kilometres 2.
A central circle with a large fountain is surrounded by birch, maple and elm tree alleys. A labyrinth composed of green paths lies beyond the park’s ponds. It is quite wild, and is also known as the “city taiga” — elk can be seen there.
It also contains a rosarium with 20 thousand rose bushes, a dendrarium, and an oak forest, with the average age of trees exceeding years. There is also a greenhouse taking up more than square meters of land. Among the large spans of recreational park areas are scores of elaborate pavilions, each representing either a branch of Soviet industry and science or one of USSR’s republics.
Even though, during the s, it was, and for some part still is, misused as a gigantic shopping center most of the pavilions are rented out for small businesses , it still retains the bulk of its architectural landmarks, including two monumental fountains Stone Flower and Friendship of Nations and a degrees panoramic cinema. Lilac Park , founded in , is known for its permanent sculpture display and a large rosarium. Moscow has always been a popular destination for tourists. Near the new Tretyakov Gallery there is a sculpture garden, Museon, often called ” the graveyard of fallen monuments ” that displays statues of the former Soviet Union that were removed from their place after its dissolution.
Other popular attractions include the Moscow Zoo , a zoological garden in two sections the valleys of two streams linked by a bridge, with nearly a thousand species and more than 6, specimens. The concentric and outward spanning roads of Moscow, as viewed from the International Space Station. Moscow’s road system is centered roughly around the Kremlin at the heart of the city. From there, roads generally span outwards to intersect with a sequence of circular roads “rings”.
The first and innermost major ring, Bulvarnoye Koltso Boulevard Ring , was built at the former location of the 16th-century city wall around what used to be called Bely Gorod White Town.
Like the Boulevard Ring, the Garden Ring follows the path of a 16th-century wall that used to encompass part of Moscow. The third ring, the Third Transport Ring, was completed in as a high-speed freeway. The Fourth Transport Ring, another freeway, is under construction to further reduce traffic congestion. Outside Moscow, some of the roads encompassing the city continue to follow this circular pattern seen inside city limits.
The Bolshoi Theatre after its renovation. Moscow International House of Music. One of the most notable art museums in Moscow is the Tretyakov Gallery, which was founded by Pavel Tretyakov , a wealthy patron of the arts who donated a large private collection to the city. The Old Tretyakov gallery, the original gallery in the Tretyakovskaya area on the south bank of the Moskva River, houses works in the classic Russian tradition.
Visitors can even see rare originals by early 15th-century iconographer Andrei Rublev. The new gallery includes a small reconstruction of Vladimir Tatlin ‘s famous Monument to the Third International and a mixture of other avant-garde works by artists like Kazimir Malevich and Wassily Kandinsky. Socialist realism features can also be found within the halls of the New Tretyakov Gallery. The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. Another art museum in the city of Moscow is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts , which was founded by, among others, the father of Marina Tsvetaeva.
The Pushkin Museum is similar to the British Museum in London in that its halls are a cross-section of exhibits on world civilisations, with many copies of ancient sculptures. Its exhibitions range from relics of the prehistoric tribes inhabiting present-day Russia, through priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum’s collection numbers is several million. The Polytechnical Museum ,  founded in is the largest technical museum in Russia, offering a wide array of historical inventions and technological achievements, including humanoid automata from the 18th century and the first Soviet computers.
Its collection contains more than , items. There is also a military history museum not to be missed, it includes statues, military hardware, and one will surely hear many interesting stories. The Red Army Theater was built in the shape of a star. Moscow is also the heart of the Russian performing arts, including ballet and film. There are 93 theaters, cinemas and 24 concert halls in Moscow. The repertories in a typical Moscow season are numerous and modern interpretations of classic works, whether operatic or theatrical, are quite common.
Tretyakov Gallery. The Moscow International Performance Arts Center,  opened in , also known as Moscow International House of Music , is known for its performances in classical music. It also has the largest organ in Russia installed in Svetlanov Hall. Memorial Museum of Astronautics under the Monument to the Conquerors of Space in the end of Cosmonauts Alley is the central memorial place for the Russian space officials.
Soviet films are integral to Russian film history and the Mosfilm studio was at the heart of many classic films, as it is responsible for both artistic and mainstream productions.
Rare and historical films may be seen in the Salut cinema, where films from the Museum of Cinema  collection are shown regularly. The Shchusev State Museum of Architecture is the national museum of Russian architecture by the name of the architect Alexey Shchusev near the Kremlin area. Moscow possesses a large number of various sports facilities and over Olympic champions lived in the city by Forty other sport complexes are located within the city, including twenty-four with artificial ice.
The Olympic Stadium was the world’s first indoor arena for bandy and hosted the Bandy World Championships twice. There are also seven horse racing tracks in Moscow,  of which Central Moscow Hippodrome ,  founded in , is the largest. Lokomotiv Stadium.
Moscow was the host city of the Summer Olympics , although the yachting events were held at Tallinn , in present-day Estonia. Large sports facilities and the main international airport, Sheremetyevo Terminal 2, were built in preparation for the Summer Olympics. Moscow had also made a bid for the Summer Olympics. However, when final voting commenced on 6 July , Moscow was the first city to be eliminated from further rounds.
The Games were finally awarded to London. Central Moscow Hippodrome. Some of them were the best players in the world.
Moscow houses several equally prominent and award-winning football, ice hockey, basketball and many other sports teams, which is rather unusual for Russia as well as the world. Because sports organisations in the Soviet Union were highly centralized in the first place, two of the best-manned Union-level teams represented defence and law-enforcing agencies: the Armed Forces CSKA and the Ministry of Internal Affairs Dinamo and a Union-wide selection there were “army” and “police” teams in most major cities and Moscow being the center of both the sports organisations, DoD and police headquarters, Spartak, CSKA and Dinamo were equally the most prestigious, well-manned and best-funded teams in the USSR.
Luzhniki Stadium. Because of Moscow’s cold local climate, winter sports have a large following as well. Many of Moscow’s large parks offer marked trails for skiing and frozen ponds for skating. It is regarded as a very prestigious tournament and is one of the ten Tier-I events on the women’s tour and a host of Russian players feature every year. Slava Moscow is a professional rugby club, competing in the national Professional Rugby League.
Former rugby league heavyweights RC Lokomotiv have entered the same league as of In bandy one of the most successful clubs in the world is 20 times and current Russian League champions Dynamo Moscow.
Russia was given the right to host the World Cup , and in Moscow, the Luzhniki Stadium will have an increased capacity, by almost 10, new seats, in addition to a further two stadiums that will be built: the Dynamo Stadium, and the Spartak Stadium.
Together these will have a capacity of at least 40, seats. Fountain in Moscow’s Square of Europe. Tverskaya Street. The city is full of different kinds of clubs, restaurants and bars.
Page 4. The London-based. The large-scale operation, which included the. Page 6. Dr Dick Perry. The illness: Brings on flu-like symptoms. Makes its victims feel sick for two to eight weeks, but rarely kills.
Is common in developing countries, and is spread by poor hygiene and dirty food and water. Tainted fruit may have given. General Jerry Useni, minister for the federal capital said the government. Page 8. The decision was hammered out in pro- tracted. In Brazil, that thug may be a cop sdfsf safsf Black sheep rampant in police force, says prosecutor in videotaped murder case SAO PAULO The state attorney prosecuting 10 police officers allegedly involved in a highly publicised, videotaped murder said on Wednesday that thuggery was chronic among Brazilian police, but.
If s all systems go for three-nation anti-aircraft frigate PARIS Britain, France and Italy have agreed to move ahead with plans for a multi-bil-lion-dollar anti-aircraft frigate which had become bogged down in rows over weapons systems, according to French officials. US states clean up after record snow storm BOSTON The north-east United States spent Wednesday digging out after a record spring storm dumped heavy snow on the region, paralysing transport and causing widespread power failures.
Several major roads and most side streets in Boston were still closed because of high. Page Guess who turned up in class? Mr Kohl, in power since , made the announcement on his 67th birthday during a. The woman, named only as Ernestine K, 65, is charged with instigating the abuse of her daughter Maria, now The pair tied up the driver and his. According to officials, the containers were abandoned when the military base where they were stored was liquidated.
The containers. B million Mr Shelton alleged that his contract entitled him to half the profits generated by the film, which tells the story. Staff Sergeant Marvin Kelley. The incident late on Wednesday left the man with fractured legs and arms, an ambulance spokesman here. John Major breaks promises, Tony Blair keeps promises. Zhao Hengdo above , famous in both. Mr Werner Resel announced his resignation at an extraordinary general meeting of the orchestra, which he has headed since However, he.
Tarzan, the draft dodger While he was swinging merrily from trees and chatting up Jane, police in World War era Romania were on the trail of actor Johnny Weissmuller above, in a movie still for refusing to answer the call to duty, Tinerama said.
It unearthed documents from November He was They said on. The findings also suggest that the inflammation-fighting properties of aspirin may explain why the painkiller seems to prevent heart attacks. Measuring blood. Unhappy lot of girls on diet TWO Australian researchers confirmed yesterday what many parents already knew that dieting made girls unhappy. Livers, kidneys and the stomach are the key to controlling. Former prostitute wins case against Aussie police force SYDNEY A trainee policewoman sacked after senior officers discovered she had worked as a prostitute and stripper won an unfair-dis-missal case yesterday and said she still hoped to nave a good time in the force.
Ms Kim Hollingsworth, 30, was sacked in. A major report said that the average life expectancy of the , indigenous. He replaces Mr Kengo wa Dondo who was forced to quit last month over his failure to stop rebels from taking over one-quarter of the country. The presidential. Page 5. Page 7. R More than 10, people signed up with us 5 on our first day! So we want to thank each and every one of you.
If you have found. Page 9. Lbi LflHI M. H Hear ye, hear ye H all Mi Trialists! Meet us at Booth No. I Singapore i Silver Hegner S. Care for a bite of marbled pork? It all started eight years ago when a staff member of the Tokyo livestock. The epicentre of the quake, which occurred at. Belly-dancing belly good TOKYO office worker Toshie Matsui enjoys belly-dancing after work it is a bellyful of laughs, and keeps her fit.
The undulating bellies and wiggling hips, often seen in dances originating in the Middle East, are not a common sight in Japan but a professional belly-dancer says the.
Tokyo to punish adults who pay for sex with teens TOKYO In a bid to stamp out rising teenage prostitution in the Japanese capital, Tokyo authorities yesterday started a legal process that would punish aflults who buy sex from minors. An advisory panel of the Tokyo Metropolitan District recommended the. The decision was based on a case involving the controversial Yasukuni Shrine, a cherrycanopied oasis in downtown Tokyo.
Bigamy and the taking of concubines on the rise Multiple marriages and the taking of concubines are undertaken by a small number of uneducated people who have suddenly become rich and who have no regard for the law.
Pushy parents driving school children round the bend They must learn piano, computer operating, painting, calligraphy and every conceivable subject supposed to make them more valuable to the 21st century economy.
Mr Zeng, speaking at a conference marking the seventh anniversary of the promulgation of the Basic Law. All enterprises that fail to meet limits for the discharge of industrial waste by that time will be closed, and low-yield tanneries as. The cards, issued to foreign-funded enterprises, identify a limited list of officially-sanctioned fees and give firms the right to refuse to pay any charge not cited.
Mr Choe Yong Ho was kidnapped on March 22 and threatened with death if. China would hold about 50 per cent in the operation, the Airbus consortium would have 30 per cent,. With the new squadron, the Taiwanese air force will have 70 fighters, also known as Cning Kuo fighters.
The Chinese-language Apple Daily said that the special agents were to take control of security during. The plan, which would relegate the Premier to the role of a chief of staff, was.
Teng-hui playing a dangerous game with Beijing: Page J jk Some call it the university of life, others the school of hard knocks. The year-old transvestite was shortlisted for lotdrawing to determine if he will undergo two years of military training during assessments at Wat.
School subsidies for poor students to be increased from 27 per cent this year to. They discussed specifically ways to expand cooperation in hydro-elec-tric power, railways, sea transport, mutual investment and trade. At least 40 ha of cajeputs wood from which an oily substance used in pharmaceutical products is extracted have been destroyed in.
Maksum as saying. Elephants in Lampung, the southernmost province on the island of. The nationwide death toll last year stood at 16,, while more than 1. STAYING PUT About 20, people remain in refugee centres in the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan, reluctant to return to their villages following weeks of ethnic unrest West Kalimantan Governor Aspar Aswin yesterday said that the authorities were encouraging the refugees to return home, but were also preparing resettlement areas.
A diamond, an elephant and a robot were. Mr Eric Ambroise, who was shot three times in the head and once. Philippines a kidnap capital? The Philippine Daily Inquirer quoted. MrArtemio Salvatierra, 57, was driving his van in the town of Taiayan near here when the unidentified men kidnapped him, said Mr.
Since , more international studies had become available on gatekeeping, agendasetting and framing in coverage of Operation Iraqi Freedom, but none of these dealt with the interaction between US media policies and coverage in South Africa.
This study will therefore contribute to the knowledge base of international news flow. Using the classical news theory models of gatekeeping, agendasetting and framing as functions of the news flow process as parameters, the origin, flow and content of reports on Operation Iraqi Freedom that were published in South African newspapers will be analysed through a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods.
Propp’s fairytale analysis and how it can be applied to the news coverage will also be discussed. To determine whether and to what extent this portrayal of the war and especially of Operation Iraqi Freedom had found its way to South African newspapers, the theoretical models of gatekeeping, agendasetting and framing that will be used to analyse news documents in Chapter 7, are discussed in Chapter 2.
Additionally, because of the alleged “Hollywoodisation” of the war Knight, ; Watkins, Propp’s fairytale analysis is examined and an argument is made for its application to the analysis of coverage of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Canadian media and mass communication experts David Skinner, Michael Gasher and James Compton state that Journalists do not simply “find” meaning in the raw data — “the facts”, interviews, etc. Rather, they create meaning out of, or from, this information American former journalist and mass communication scholar Peter Parisi explains that from the perspective of critical or cultural studies news writing represents a set of choices: choices that a define an issue as newsworthy and certain questions as relevant; b admit, mute, or reject information, sources, and perspectives; and c decide the level and extent of detail and “color” with which to render a person, community, region, or issue.
McNelly addressed the fact that between the event and the audience, news flows through the hands of many gatekeepers, who may be correspondents, news bureau personnel or various levels of editors. This observation is still true today. At the central bureau it may be altered or combined with another story before it is transferred through to the national bureau of a country, where it may once again be changed before it is dispatched to a newspaper or radio station that may modify it again, or even reject it, before publication or broadcast.
The audience, in turn, may also act as gatekeepers by passing snippets of information on to other people. Throughout the process, feedback in various guises may or may not have a further effect on the manipulation of the news report. In Galtung and Ruge identified factors used in the selection of news in the news flow process, and subsequent studies e. Boyd-Barrett, ; Fenby, ; Friedland, ; quoted by Sreberny-Mohammadi, determined that these and other “gatekeeping factors” were predominantly in the hands Western news agencies, particularly in the US.
This development did not go far and today international news flow is no more symmetrical than 30 years ago, with the US still at the centre of news output Kleinsteuber, He referred to the person who selected the food as the “gatekeeper”, adding that the theory of gates “holds not only for food channels but also for the travelling of a news item through certain communication channels in a group” Lewin, In , White used this idea in his study of the selection processes involved in the flow of news from the source to the audience past the various filters or “gatekeepers” White, This made him the first scholar to study gatekeeping in the journalistic sense of the word Zhou, White specifically studied what he called “the last ‘gatekeeper'” — a wire-editor, referred to as Mr Gates, who was responsible for the selection of national and international news for the front and jump pages of the newspaper White, This study was replicated in by American communication scientist Paul B.
However, the nature of the news had changed, as in the press was more interested in hard news and international conflicts than was the case in Gieber focused on reporters and their sources as two gatekeepers in the channel of news flow, but he, like White, came to the conclusion that the news is “very subjective”, stating that news does not have an independent existence and that it is in fact the product of the members of a “news-gathering bureaucracy” Gieber, , News, Gieber declared, is what the media make it.
Extrapolating factors identified as conducive to attracting attention on a psychological level, Galtung and Ruge postulated eight hypotheses about news selection.
These factors were regarded as internationally applicable, but the authors granted that the selection of events as news may also be influenced by culture-bound factors, which for the Norwegian community included reference to elite nations, to elite people, to people, and to something negative.
For example, in his study of domestic news German-born American sociologist and educator Herbert Gans found that journalists use a range of interrelated considerations to determine the newsworthiness of a story. Gans also referred to interesting stories, which generally are what he called “people stories”. Whereas “important” stories often tend to be “bad”, “interesting” stories are generally “good” or at least “light”. Stories concerning sex, show business, human interest, animals, an unfolding drama, or offering opportunities for humorous treatment, entertaining photographs or witty headlines.
This includes press conferences of Iraqi Minister of Information, Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf, also known as “Comical Ali” because of the way he “bemused the West with his litany of claimed victories over coalition troops, and amused Arabs with his bottomless Figure 1. Iraqi Information dictionary of insults”. Stories concerning powerful individuals, organisations or institutions. Figure 2.
George W. Stories about issues, groups and nations perceived to be relevant to the audience. South Africa is a remarkably Americanised country, especially in consumerism and the arts Cuthbertson, According to Bush there is “a vital and strong relationship” between the two countries The White House, , making matters of concern to the US important to South Africa.
This, however, did not necessarily Figure 3. Stories with particular positive overtones such as rescues or cures. One of the most significant events during the war was the now controversial rescue of Army Pfc Jessica Lynch from the Saddam Hospital in Nasiryia, which prompted newspapers world-wide to wax lyrical about both her bravery and the heroism of her rescuers Lamprecht, a Figure 4. Stories with particular negative overtones, such as conflict or tragedy. In times of conflict, definitions of “good” or “bad” news depends on point of view.
Few of these images were published, as the Pentagon instructed US military bases that “there will be no arrival ceremonies for, or media coverage of, deceased military personnel returning to or departing from Ramstein Germany airbase or Figure 5. A rare photograph of Dover Del. These are the most important cargo plane at Kuwait ports for the returning remains of soldiers who International Airport. Tami died in Iraq. Such images were the source of Silico, the contract-worker who great joy amongst people harbouring anti- photographed the coffins, was American sentiments Die Burger, b Stories that are perceived as sufficiently significant either in the numbers of people involved or in potential impact.
The “shock and awe” attack was newsworthy not only because of the governmental and media hype beforehand, but also for the more than 1 missiles and bombs that were exploded by the US military forces on selected targets in and around Baghdad on the night of 20 March Rapport, a.
Figure 6. Although president George W. Bush already enjoys “important person” status in terms of newsworthiness, his Thanksgiving visit to his troops in Baghdad Lamprecht, b:6 was a fail-safe move to ensure wide media coverage, especially because of the clandestine nature of the visit. Figure 7. President Bush serves his troops Photo: Associated Press, a. Global coverage of Gulf War II shows clear differences in the news agendas. Figure 8. Newspapers of 22 March Newseum, Stories about subjects already in the news.
Figure 9. The continued search for weapons of mass destruction Photo: CNN, She condensed and integrated these models into a detailed model of gatekeeping, which agreed with McNelly that news flow through various channels to news organisations, such as wire services, newspapers and television networks, where the messages are either rejected or selected and adapted before it is passed on to the next person or organisation.
Recognising the complexity of the gatekeeping process, Shoemaker acknowledged the distinct traits and characteristics of the gatekeeper — people in a news organisation who select and shape news messages, such as reporters, news editors, sub- editors and editors. Figure Intra-individual gatekeeping processes illustration redrawn as in Shoemaker, As seen in Figure 11, these reporters must comply with the limitations of their news routines, and with their employers’ priorities Shoemaker, For example, when veteran Washington Post reporter Walter Pincus questioned whether the US government had proof that Saddam was hiding weapons of mass destruction, his editors refused to publish his story and only did so when forced by assistant managing editor Bob Woodward Kurtz, Reporters accused the Washington Post of printing government views on the front page, while anything contradicting the administration was placed “on A18 on Sunday or A24 on Monday” Kurz, Gatekeeping within an organisation is embedded in communication organisational characteristics illustration redrawn as in Shoemaker, The demands of influential forces outside news organisations are equally important in news selection Shoemaker, In Iraq embedded reporters had to comply with the Pentagon ground rules, which prohibited the publication of information on e.
Because Fox News correspondent Geraldo Rivera broke these rules by drawing a map in the sand indicating his location with the st Airborne unit relatively to Baghdad, as well as their destination, he was asked by the Pentagon to voluntarily leave Iraq Plante, In this section of the model, Shoemaker also made provision for the “groupthink” phenomenon first described by psychologist Irving Janis in , who defined it as a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.
This phenomenon is of particular interest in coverage of Operation Iraqi Freedom, as two prominent US newspapers, namely Washington Post Kurtz, and The New York Times both used the word “groupthink” when apologising for their erroneous reporting on weapons of mass destruction as justification for the war on Iraq.
As indicated in Figure 12, surviving news items that were fashioned to suit the needs and characteristics of the organisation, are subsequently either transmitted directly to the audience, or passed to a next news organisation, where it is subjected to a similar series of gatekeeping procedures Shoemaker, Gatekeeping between organisations is embedded in social system ideology and culture and is influenced by social and institutional factors illustration redrawn as in Shoemaker, The Sunday Times had their own unilateral reporter in Baghdad Schoonakker, , which cut down considerably the number of gates and the consequent sifting and alterations to the messages.
All the other newspapers, however, relied solely on agency material, which some newspapers adapted to their readership, while others, such as The Citizen, published wire reports without rewriting them. As indicated by the feedback loops in Figure 12, news organisations do not act in isolation, but form part of the ideology and social system in which they function, and their news agenda is therefore subjected to sanctioning by their audience as representatives of this community Shoemaker, They are also under pressure from external institutions such as advertisers, shareholders, and government bodies.
The extent of these pressures can best be illustrated by the dismissal of Pulitzer Prize winning news correspondent Peter Arnett by US broadcaster NBC after he made critical comments about the US war effort when interviewed on Iraqi television Sales, Initially NBC defended Arnett, but within 24 hours yielded to outside pressure to fire their only correspondent in Baghdad. While one cannot allege that General Electric in any way perpetuated the war, it would not be unreasonable to assume that a company would strive to protect its relationship with such an important client Deserano, ; Ireland, Through selection and the assignment of salience by e.
This ability was first recognised by newspaper columnist Walter Lippmann, who referred to “the pictures in our heads” in his book Public Opinion Lippmann, : “The only feeling that anyone can have about an event he does not experience is the feeling aroused by his mental image of that event” — an image to a large extent created by the news media. This view was confirmed in by US sociologists Paul Lazarsfeld and Robert Merton who referred to one of the mass media’s roles in society as “status- conferral” function, which means that the mass media confer status on public issues, persons, organizations, and social movements.
Common experience as well as research testifies that the social standing of persons or social policies is raised when these command favorable attention in the mass media Examining this idea in his book The press and foreign policy, which dealt with the media’s role in the foreign policy decision-making process, Bernard Cohen, a political scientist from the University of Wisconsin, observed that the press “may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about” : It is here, in the description of the political environment and the suggestion of the policy alternatives that give the best promise of managing the environment, that we shall find the press playing such an important role in current thinking about foreign policy For most of the foreign policy audience, the really effective political map of the world — that is to say, their operational map of the world — is drawn by the reporter and the editor, not by the cartographer.
It must be noted that the term “agenda”, according to McCombs , is not intended to imply that a news organisation has a premeditated, often evil, “agenda” that it pursues relentlessly, but is merely a descriptive term, referring to the result over time of numerous day-to-day decisions by all the gatekeepers in a news organisation, from the reporter in the field to the sub-editor and the editor.
That the line-up of issues on the public agenda was very similar to the line-up of issues that was in the new coverage of the previous month McCombs, According to McCombs newspapers provide various cues about the salience of a particular news event through the placement of a report on a page, the page it is printed on, and the size of the headline, for example.
When the same cues regarding the importance of an issue recur over a period of days, weeks, months, or even longer, it becomes possible to identify the agenda of a news organisation. Since that first study almost four decades ago, and more than empirical studies later Weaver, , the agendasetting theory has expanded into five distinct stages McCombs, ; McCombs, The idea of first level agendasetting resulted from the theory initiated by McCombs and Shaw after their Chapel Hill research project which dealt with the prominence or salience of objects: “public issues, political candidates, other public figures.
It could be any set of objects that you might be interested in” McCombs, Other first level agendasetting studies include those by Winter and Eyal , Iyengar and Kinder , Eaton and Brosius and Kepplinger When people are in an unfamiliar situation, they experience a “need for orientation” which makes them turn to the news media to orient themselves McCombs, Highly knowledgeable people will be less likely to be influenced by the news agenda, but interested people who have little knowledge would have a strong need for orientation, resulting in a very strong correspondence between the media agenda and those people’s opinions about an issue.
In recent years, studies of agendasetting increasingly moved away from first level agendasetting, or the media telling the audience ”what to think about”, to focus on second level or attribute agendasetting, which means the media is telling the audience “how to think about” issues or objects Sheafer, Stated differently, while the first level of agendasetting refers to the transmission of object salience, a second level of agendasetting involves the transmission of attribute salience, which in fact may guide people in what to think McCombs, An “object” refers to for example topics, issues, and persons, which may each have various attributes, i.
Just as objects may be presented by the news media as more or less important, so too may attributes vary in salience, which makes them equally powerful as agendasetting tools. Perhaps a quick way to summarize the difference between the basic agenda- setting effect, and what’s now come to be called attribute agendasetting, is in terms of Lippman’s phrase “the pictures in our heads”.
The object agenda, in effect, says “What are the pictures about? What are they pictures of? What does this really look like? Second level agendasetting studies e. Empirical studies, however, do not draw a clear distinction between cognitive and affective attributes Sheafer, Other recent studies on second level agendasetting include those by Scheufele , Golan and Wanta and Kiousis This means that the salience of an object or its attributes in the stories published by one medium will be mirrored by other media.
Once it became obvious that media reports influence the public’s perception of the importance of various issues, media researchers wanted to know who is responsible for the media’s agenda McCombs, This is a complex question with many answers: most importantly, the media’s agenda is shaped by news values and journalistic tradition. The agenda is also shaped by outside influences, such as various sources: press spokespersons, government officials, politicians, and the ubiquitous public relations agencies.
However, an agenda is also shaped by the whole mix of different media – the relationship that exists, for instance, between blogs and news media, both Internet and traditional Weaver Indiana University , Maxwell E.
Although Weaver et al. Kinder associated the effects of television agendasetting with perceptions of the US President “in a demonstration of what some cognitive psychologists have called priming — making certain issues or attributes more salient and more likely to be accessed in forming opinions” Weaver, Priming is similar to first level agendasetting, but goes further by addressing the effect of these agendas on the audience’s perceptions of an issue Lee, It begs the question: “What are the consequences of creating these pictures in the public’s mind?
According to this view, people will therefore make evaluations or judgements based on what they regard as being more important, or what is discussed most in the media, as this information is the easiest to access. It must be noted that some authors disagree with the notion that priming is an extension of agendasetting, e. This relationship is apparent from McCombs’s definition, which describes framing as the selection of a restricted number of thematically related attributes for inclusion on the media agenda when a particular object is discussed.
A generally accepted definition of framing is, however, problematic. Although there exists abundant literature on framing — some articles are indexed in Communication Abstracts for the period to Weaver, — analysts differ in their interpretation of the concept when dealing with the different approaches to and theories of frames, framing devices, models of framing, framing analyses and framing effects Kinder, Rather, frame analyses are a number of related, even though sometimes partially incompatible methods for the analysis of discourses Scheufele, American sociologist Erving Goffman is one of the first scholars to define framing, which he explains as the many ways in which the media create the context within which the audience may “locate, perceive, identify and label” world affairs, in other words, to make sense of those events.
Columbia University Journalism and Sociology Professor Todd Gitlin points out that the largely invisible frames organises the world for journalists, who report on world events, by enabling them to quickly and routinely process large amounts of information. Conversely, frames also help the audience to understand the world. On the contrary, some form of media frame is essential to the understanding of the world — without it, much of what happens and what is said would remain “mere talk and incomprehensible sounds” Tuchman, Frames, then, define problems — determine what a causal agent is doing and costs and benefits, usually measured in terms of cultural values; diagnose causes — identify the forces creating the problem; make moral judgments — evaluate causal agents and their effects; and suggest remedies — offer and justify treatments for the problem and predict their likely effects.
In order to analyse frames present in coverage of Operation Iraqi Freedom, it is necessary to decide on an applicable frame. This is rather problematic, as just like the definition of framing is vague in literature Scheufele, ; Hyun, ; Kinder, , so is the identification of frames: “We are not told how to identify a frame” Carvalho, This “conceptual conundrum” often leaves it to the researcher to “propose their own definition of frames and approaches to framing study before they begin their research” Hyun, Alternative frames are represented by a single presentation of a sentence or two, reminders of how an issue might be understood.
This study focuses on how international news flows and not on the effects of the news on the audience. Therefore, framing devices are particularly important to this research.
Coalition forces were characterised as freedom loving, working hard to avoid civilian casualties and seeking to protect religious diversity Saddam Hussein and his sons, like a gang of Hollywood rustlers, were given forty eight hours to get out of town Knight, 1, There are many reasons for the use of the story frame in the production of news.
It is employed to attract attention by provoking feeling in the audience, “inducing him to feel a sense of personal identification” Lippmann, It is also a consequence of the mass media’s continuous need for more news Boorstin, To satisfy this need, “bogus dramas and humbug heroes” are created which spawn an “empty world of celebrity” Hanson, We expect new heroes every season, a literary masterpiece every month, a dramatic spectacular every week, a rare sensation every night Boorstin, Jamie Shea, NATO spokesman during the Balkan war, told business leaders in Switzerland, in a talk named Selling a conflict — the ultimate PR challenge, that he credited his successful media campaign in the Balkans to giving the public what they loved: “daily soap operas with good characters”.
Whenever things grew quiet on the war front, he used the time “to explain again who’s the good guy and who’s the bad guy”. The usefulness of the story frame was tested by Massachusetts Institute of Technology political scientist Alan J. Berinsky and Kinder in their study of the decision making process. They found that citizens understand particular event sequences when they can organize the relevant information into coherent stories.
Political leaders, analysts and government officials tend to frame their views and statements — to be transferred to the public through all the various sectors of mass media — with the audience in mind, thereby shaping the way the public process and store information that would contribute to their understanding of politics. In a study on how people make sense of politics, Berinsky and Kinder found that when information is framed as a good story, the audience’s understanding of the data changes, which in turn appears to shape opinion.
These frames do not need to present strong arguments for one side or another in order to change public opinion. Small and subtle differences in the presentation of information can sometimes do the trick. Berinsky and Kinder declares that [a] good frame is at its heart a good story. To understand why some frames succeed and others fail, we need to understand what makes an effective story.
According to Kinder [p]eople know what makes a good story, and this knowledge influences how they understand text and how they represent such text in their minds Evidence is unscrambled. Causal and intentional relations are established. Gaps are filled. Plot turns are identified. Thus, the story frame is a useful device to create desired perceptions about current issues, and its utilisation as a strategic tool is advocated by US military scholars William Casebeer and James A.
Because the story frame has become a weapon in the hands of government officials and military strategists who use the media to disseminate carefully constructed tales Payne, , it became imperative to determine what the elements of a good story are. As such, Propp’s schema will be used in this study to demarcate the story frame to be used in the analysis of Operation Iraqi Freedom media coverage. He broke down folktales into their “small component parts” and identified eight character types Table 1 and 31 basic elements or “functions” Table 21, next page in the stories Propp, , Not all the elements were present in all the folktales, but those that were, always recurred in the same order.
Table 1. Propp’s 31 basic functions Propp, 1. One of the members of a family absents himself from home. An interdiction is addressed to the hero. The interdiction is violated 4. The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance.
The villain receives information about his victim. The villain attempts to deceive his victim as to capture him or his belongings.
The victim submits to deception and thereby unwittingly helps his enemy. The villain causes harm or injury to a member of a family. One member of a family either lacks something or desires to have something. Misfortune or lack is made known; the hero is approached with a request or command; he is allowed to go or he is dispatched.
The seeker agrees to or decides upon counteraction. The hero leaves home. The hero is tested, which prepares him to receive either a magical agent or helper. The hero acquires the use of a magical agent. The hero is transferred, delivered, or led to the whereabouts of an object of search.
The hero and the villain join in direct combat. The hero is branded. The villain is defeated. The initial misfortune or lack is liquidated. The hero returns.
The hero is pursued. Rescue of the hero from pursuit. The hero, unrecognized, arrives home or in another country. A false hero presents unfounded claims. A difficult task is proposed to the hero. The task is resolved. The hero is recognized. The false hero or villain is exposed. The hero is given a new appearance.
The villain is punished. The hero is married and ascends the throne. When these elements are distilled into a simpler form, the most common story told is that of a villain who harms a victim, prompting the hero to go on a quest.
The hero receives a magic agent from a donor, which he uses to defeat the villain in order to right the initial wrong and ultimately to win the hand of the princess Propp, While these stories have enduring appeal as fairytales, they also form the backbone of popular cinema. During Operation Iraqi Freedom the author, as an ordinary member of the global audience, was struck by the strong “story-like” coverage by the media.
In this case, President George W. Bush is the indisputable hero. The Wall Street Journal described Bush as not only of strong moral character himself, but … he actually believes in things He sees rights and wrongs … and has a clear vision of what is and is not in America’s interest and does not hesitate to act accordingly Du Pont, In his January State of the Union address, Bush pledged: Whatever action is required, whenever action is necessary, I will defend the freedom and security of the American people Bush, a.
Against the backdrop of a painting of Jesus, with his body- language mirroring that of the Saviour, Bush is by association framed as everything that is heroic, noble, good, fair, honest, and blameless Photo: Spiegel Online, According to White House spokesperson Ari Fleischer a , however, nobody, but nobody, is more reluctant to go to war than President Bush …He hopes it can be averted, but he is also clear about the fact that one way to save American lives is to prevent Saddam Hussein from engaging in something that can be far, far worse than the price we saw on September Despite this reluctance, Bush b told the press at his ranch in Texas: I’m going to continue doing the job the American people expect, which is to safeguard America and Americans My job is to protect the American people I’ve got my mind on the peace and security of the American people.
And I will do that Bush, c. For this, the US Senate and House of Representatives gave him the authority to take the necessary actions against international terrorists and terrorist organizations, including those nations, organizations or persons who planned, authorized, committed or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, or harbored such persons or organizations The White House, The villain.
Saddam Hussein is the villain in this tale, “the man who tried to kill my dad”, according to George W. Bush, referring to an alleged plot to assassinate Bush Senior in Kuwait in Lyon, With his dark suit, fedora and moustache, the gun-toting Saddam Hussein apparently fits in his frame as a Brando-esque villain Photo: CNN, His brutal rule includes slaughter, rape, mutilation and the destruction of families … Saddam is working feverishly to acquire nuclear weapons Perle, a.
Much the same images were portrayed during Gulf War I, when Saddam was referred to as a Hitler, a dictator, a military strongman, a madman who was a menace to world peace and the American way of life, a beast and a monster that Bush Senior had to destroy Kellner, The victim or princess.
In his 7 October speech in Cincinnati Bush laid a perfect foundation for the future portrayal of the American nation as a victim in the Gulf War II “fairytale”, who must be saved from the villain.
In this speech, Bush reminded the American people of 11 September , when America felt its vulnerability — even to threats that gather on the other side of the earth.
Continue Reading – Windows 10 1703 download iso itar-tass
Motogp download full game for free, Stine uni hamburg support, Juke bar session, Windows dvd player for windows 10, Giants v cowboys channel. Analysing reports from international news agencies – AP, AFP, Reuters, Xinhua, ITAR- TASS and the Inter Press Service (IPS) – Horvit () determined. iso o hro oe p Ergo Co m p lexi0n e s dati n ume ri etc. 0. E. D: Hae c o m n is ve rb o rum varie tas et in te rpre tattio e x Gram m aticis. the 2 of 3 and 4 0 5 to 6 a 7 in 8 1 9 for 10 image 11 2 12 is 13 3 14 or 15 room effective genetics -5 share download reading. replace.me 26 replace.me 27 replace.me replace.me replace.me replace.me
NewspaperSG – The Straits Times, 4 April
Some organizations, such as Moscow Architecture Preservation Society and Save Europe’s Heritageare trying to draw the international public attention to these http://replace.me/12133.txt. Canada in❿