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The Windows Insider Preview version of Windows 10 automatically updated itself windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto the generally released version as part of the version progression and continues to be updated to new beta builds, as it had throughout the testing process. State-run Below middle The Torrazzo clocktower in Crema www. Set on a hillside above Baroque palace with terraced gardens. Other features such http://replace.me/8936.txt word wrap and transparency were also added. In the most civilized countries the vernacular had been elevated to the dignity of the classical tongues by being made the literary vehicle of such poets as Politian and Bembo, Ronsard and Du Bellay.❿
Windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto.Back Roads Northern & Central Italy | PDF | Airlines | Travel Visa
Material on the subject of travel in any century is apparently inexhaustible, and one could write many books on the subject without duplicating sources. The following aims no further than to describe one phase of Renaissance travel in clear and sharp outline, with sufficient illustration to embellish but not to clog the main ideas.
In the preparation of this book I incurred many debts of gratitude. I would thank the staff of the Bodleian, especially Windows iso download free W.
Northup, of Cornell University, for similar aid. Marshall, of the Board of Trade, for the generous gift of her leisure hours in reading for me in the British Museum after the sea had divided me from that treasure-house of information. I would like to acknowledge with thanks the kind advice of Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Sidney Lee, whose generosity in giving time and scholarship many students besides myself are in a position to appreciate.
Pearsall Smith, from whose work on the Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton I have drawn copiously, gave me also courteous personal assistance.
To the Faculty of the English Department at Columbia University I owe the gratitude of one who has received her earliest inclination to scholarship from their teachings.
I am under heavy obligations to Professor A. Thorndike and Professor G. Krapp for their corrections and suggestions in the proof-sheets of this book, and to Professor W.
Trent for continued help and encouragement throughout my studies at Columbia and elsewhere. Above all, I wish to emphasize the aid of Windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto C. Firth, of Oxford University, whose sympathy and comprehension of the difficulties of a beginner in the field he so nobly commands can be understood only by those, like myself, who come to Oxford aspiring and alone. I wish this essay were a more worthy result of his influence.
Among the many didactic books which flooded England in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were certain essays on travel. Some of these have never been brought to light since their publication more than three hundred years ago, or been mentioned by the few writers who have interested themselves in the literature of this subject. In the collections of voyages and explorations, so often garnered, these have нажмите для продолжения no place.
Most of them are very rare, and have never been reprinted. Yet they do not deserve to be thus overlooked, and in several ways this survey of them will, I think, be useful for students of literature.
They reveal a widespread custom among Elizabethan and Jacobean gentlemen, of completing their education by travel. Addressed windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto the intending tourist, they are in no sense to be confused with guide-books or itineraries. They are discussions of the benefits of travel, admonitions and warnings, arranged to put the traveller in the proper attitude of mind towards his great task of self-development.
Taken in chronological order they outline for us the life of the travelling student. Beginning with the end of the sixteenth century when travel became the fashion, as the only means of acquiring modern languages and modern history, as well as those physical accomplishments and social graces by which a young man won his way at Court, they trace his evolution up to the time when it had no longer any serious motive; that is, when the chairs of modern history and modern languages were founded at the English universities, and when, with the fall of the Stuarts, the Court ceased to be the arbiter of men’s fortunes.
In the course of this evolution they show us many phases of continental influence in England; how Italian immorality infected young imaginations, how the Jesuits won travellers to their religion, how France became the model of deportment, what were the origins of the Grand Tour, and so forth.
That these directions for travel were not isolated oddities of literature, but were the expression of a widespread ideal of the English gentry, I have tried to show in the following study. The essays can hardly be windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto without support from biography and history, and for that reason I have introduced some concrete illustrations of the sort of traveller to whom the books were addressed.
If I have not always quoted the “Instructions” fully, it is because they repeat one another on some points. My plan has been to comment on whatever in each book was new, or showed the evolution of travel for study’s sake. The result, I hope, will serve to show something of the cosmopolitanism of English society in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; of the windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto contact which held between England and the Continent, while England was not yet great and self-sufficient; of times when her soldiers of low and high degree went to seek their fortunes in the Low Countries, and her merchants journeyed in person to conduct business with Italy; when a steady stream of Roman Catholics and exiles for political reasons trooped to France or Flanders for years together.
These discussions of the art of travel are relics of an age when Englishmen, next to the Germans, were known for the greatest travellers among all nations.
In the same boat-load with merchants, spies, exiles, and diplomats from England sailed the young gentleman fresh from his university, to complete his education by a look at the most civilized countries of the world.
He approached the Continent with an inquiring, open mind, eager to learn, quick to imitate windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto refinements and ideas of countries older than his own. For the same purpose that now takes American students to England, or Japanese students to America, the English striplings once windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto to France, comparing governments and manners, watching everything, noting everything, and coming home to benefit their country by new ideas.
I hope, also, that a review of these forgotten volumes may lend an added pleasure to the reading of books greater than themselves in Elizabethan literature. One cannot fully appreciate the satire of Amorphus’s claim to be “so sublimated and refined by travel,” and to have windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto in the spirit of beauty in some eight score and eighteen princes’ courts where I have resided,”  unless one has read of the windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto of travel as expounded by the current Instructions for Travellers; nor the dialogues between Sir Politick-Would-be and Peregrine in Volpone, or the Fox.
Shakespeare, too, in The Two Gentlemen of Veronahas taken bodily the arguments of the Elizabethan orations in praise of travel:. Pilgrimages at the close of the Middle Ages–New objects for travel in the fifteenth century–Humanism–Diplomatic ambition–Linguistic acquirement. Development of the individual–Benefit to the Commonwealth–First books addressed to travellers. France the arbiter of manners in the seventeenth century–Riding the great horse–Attempts to establish academies in England–Why travellers neglected Spain.
The decline of the courtier–Foundation of chairs of Modern History and Modern Languages at Oxford and Cambridge–Englishmen become self-sufficient–Books of travel become common–Advent of the Romantic traveller who travels for scenery.
Of the many social impulses that were influenced by the Renaissance, by that “new lernynge which runnythe all the world over now-a-days,” the love of travel received a notable modification. This very old instinct to go far, far away had in the Middle Ages found sanction, dignity and justification in the performance of pilgrimages.
It is open to doubt whether the number of the truly pious windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto ever have filled so many ships to Port Jaffa had not their ranks been swelled by the restless, the adventurous, the wanderers of all classes.
Towards the sixteenth century, when curiosity about things human was an ever stronger undercurrent in England, pilgrimages were particularly popular. InHenry VI. Among the earliest books printed in England was Informacon for Pylgrymes unto the Holy Londe, by Wynkin de Worde, one which ran to three editions,  an almost exact copy of William Wey’s “prevysyoun” provision for a journey eastwards.
The advice given anydesk soft98 download that the ordinary pilgrim thought, not of the ascetic advantages of the voyage, or of simply arriving in safety at his holy destination, but of making the trip in the highest possible degree of personal comfort and pleasure.
He is advised to take with him two barrels of wine “For yf ye wolde geve windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto dukates for a barrel ye shall none have after that ye passe moche Venyse” ; to buy orange-ginger, almonds, rice, figs, cloves, maces and loaf sugar also, to eke out the fare the ship will provide. And this although he is to make the patron swear, before the pilgrim sets foot in the galley, that he will serve “hote meete twice at two meals a day.
Far from being encouraged to exercise a humble and abnegatory spirit on the voyage, he is to be at pains to secure windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto berth in the middle of the ship, and not to mind paying fifty ducats for windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto be in a good honest place, “to have your ease in the galey and also to be cherysshed.
But while this посетить страницу источник was being published, new forces were at hand which were to strip the thin disguise of piety from pilgrims of this sort. The Colloquies of Erasmus appeared before the third edition of Informacon for Pylgrymesand exploded the idea that it was the height of piety to have seen Jerusalem.
It was nothing but the love of change, Erasmus declared, that made old bishops run over huge spaces windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto sea and land to reach Jerusalem. The noblemen who flocked thither had better be looking after their estates, and married men after their wives.
Young men and women travelled “non sine gravi discrimine morum et integritatis. Some people went windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto and again and did nothing else all their lives long. And people could spend their time, money and pains on something which was truly pious. But a new object for travel was windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto up and filling the leading minds of the sixteenth century–the desire of learning, at first hand, the best that was being thought and said in the world.
Humanism was the new power, the new channel into which men were turning in the days when “our naturell, yong, lusty and coragious prynce and sovrayne lord King Herre the Eighth entered into the flower of pleasaunt youthe. All through the fifteenth century the universities of Italy, pre-eminent since their foundation for secular studies, had been gaining reputation by their offer of a wider education than the threadbare discussions of the schoolmen.
The discovery and revival in the fifteenth century of Greek literature, which had stirred Italian society so profoundly, gave to the universities a northward-spreading fame. Northern scholars, like Rudolf Agricola, for 64 free utorrent download bit windows 10 south to find congenial air at the centre of intellectual life. That professional humanists could not do without the stamp of true culture which an Italian degree gave to them, Erasmus, observer of all things, notes in the year to the Lady of Veer:.
For people do not straightway change their minds because they cross the sea, as Horace says, nor will the shadow of an impressive name make me a whit more learned Although Erasmus despised degree-hunting, it is well known that he felt the power of Italy. He was tempted to remain in Rome for ever, by reason of the company he found there.
There was, for instance, the Cardinal Grimani, who begged Erasmus to share his life We get a glimpse of the Venetian printing-house when Aldus and Erasmus worked together: Erasmus sitting writing regardless of the noise of printers, while Aldus breathlessly reads proof, admiring every word. It was this charm of intellectual companionship which started the whole stream of travel animi causa. Whoever had keen wits, an agile mind, imagination, yearned for Italy.
There enlightened spirits struck sparks from one another. Young and ardent minds in England and in Germany found an escape from the dull and melancholy grimness of their uneducated elders–purely practical fighting-men, whose ideals were fixed on a petrified code of life.
I need not explain how Englishmen first felt this charm of urbane civilization. As for Italian journeys of Selling, Grocyn, Latimer, Tunstall, Colet and Lily, of that extraordinary group of scholars who transformed Oxford by the introduction of Greek ideals and gave to it the peculiar distinction which is still shining, I mention them only to suggest that they are the source of the Renaissance respect for a foreign education, and the founders of the fashion which, in its popular spreadings, we will attempt to trace.
They all studied перейти на страницу Italy, and brought home nothing but windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto. For to scholarship they joined a native force of character which gave a most felicitous introduction to England of the fine things of the mind which they brought home with them. By their example they gave an impetus to travel for education’s sake which lesser men could never have done. Rich churchmen, patrons of letters, launched promising students on to the Continent to give them a complete education; as Richard Fox, Founder of Corpus Christi, sent Edward Wotton to Padua, “to improve his learning and chiefly to learn Greek,”  or Thomas Langton, Bishop of Winchester, supported Richard Pace at the same university.
Shunning all implication in the tumult of the political world, he slipped back to Padua, and there surrounded himself with friends,–“singular fellows, such as ever absented themselves from the court, desiring to live holily. There were other elements that contributed to the growth of travel besides the desire to become exquisitely learned. It was soon found that a special combination of qualities was needed in the ambassadors to carry out windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto aspirations.
Churchmen, like the ungrateful Pole, for whose education he had generously subscribed, were often unpliable to his views of the Pope; a good old English взято отсюда, though devoted, might be like Sir Robert Wingfield, simple, unsophisticated, and the laughingstock of foreigners.
On one of his visits to Oxford he was impressed with the comely presence and flowing expression of John Mason, who, though the son of a cowherd, was notable at the university for his “polite and majestick speaking. King Henry disposed of him in foreign parts, to add practical experience to his speculative studies, and paid for his education out of the king’s Privy Purse, as we see by the royal expenses for September Another educational investment of the King’s was Thomas Smith, afterwards as excellent an ambassador as Mason, whom he supported at Cambridge, and according to Camden, at riper years made choice of to be sent into Italy.
This again merged into the pursuit of a still more informal education–the sort which comes from “seeing the world. With any ambassador went a bevy of young gentlemen, who on their return diffused a certain mysterious sophistication which was the envy of home-keeping youth. According to Hall, when they came back to England they were “all French in eating and drinking and apparel, yea, and in the French vices and brags: so that all the estates of England were by them laughed at, the ladies and gentlewomen were dispraised, and nothing by them was praised, but if it were after the French turn.
There was still another contributory element to the growth of travel, one which touched diplomats, scholars, and courtiers–the necessity of learning modern languages. By the middle of the sixteenth century Latin was no longer sufficient for intercourse between educated people. In the most civilized windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto the vernacular had been elevated to the dignity of the classical tongues by being made the literary vehicle of such poets as Politian and Bembo, Ronsard and Du Bellay.
A vernacular literature of great beauty, too important to be overlooked, began to spring up on all sides. One could no longer keep abreast of the best thought without a knowledge of modern languages. More powerful than any academic leanings was the Renaissance curiosity about man, which could not be satisfied through the knowledge of Latin only.
Hardly anyone but churchmen talked Latin in familiar conversation with one. When a man visited foreign courts and wished to enter into social intercourse with ladies and fashionables, or move freely among soldiers, or settle a bill with an innkeeper, he found that he sorely needed the language of the country.
ENGLISH TRAVELLERS – Windows 10 1703 download iso italy travelers auto
I might dwell for a moment on Hall’s curious account of this latter affair, because it is one of the few utterances we have by an acknowledged Italianate Englishman–of a certain sort. The humorists throw a good deal of light on such “yong Jyntelmen.
Also spending more tyme in sportes, and following the same, than is any way commendable, and the lesse, bycause, I warrant you, the summes be great are dealte for. This terrible person, on the 16th of December , at Lothbury, in London, at a table of twelve pence a meal, supped with some merchants and a certain Melchisedech Mallerie.
Dice were thrown on the board, and in the course of play Mallerie “gave the lye with harde wordes in heate to one of the players. Here Etna smoked, daggers were a-drawing But a certain Master Richard Drake, attending on my Lord of Leicester, took pains first to warn Hall to take heed of Mallerie at play, and then to tell Mallerie that Hall said he used “lewde practices at cards.
He said he was patient because he was bound to keep the peace for dark disturbances in the past. Mallerie said it was because he was a coward. Mallerie continued to say so for months, until before a crowd of gentlemen at the “ordinary” of one Wormes, his taunts were so unbearable that Hall crept up behind him and tried to stab him in the back. There was a general scuffle, some one held down Hall, the house grew full in a moment with Lord Zouche, gentlemen, and others, while “Mallerie with a great shreke ranne with all speede out of the doores, up a paire of stayres, and there aloft used most harde wordes againste Mr Hall.
Hall, who had cut himself–and nobody else–nursed his wound indoors for some days, during which time friends brought word that Mallerie would “shewe him an Italian tricke, intending thereby to do him some secret and unlooked for mischief. Business called him, he tells the reader. There was no ground whatever for Mallerie to say he fled in disguise.
After six months, he ventured to return to London and be gay again. He dined at “James Lumelies–the son, as it is said, of old M. Dominicke, born at Genoa, of the losse of whose nose there goes divers tales,”–and coming by a familiar gaming-house on his way back to his lodgings, he “fell to with the rest. But there is no peace for him. In comes Mallerie–and with insufferably haughty gait and countenance, brushes by. Hall tries a pleasant saunter around Poules with his friend Master Woodhouse: “comes Mallerie again, passing twice or thrice by Hall, with great lookes and extraordinary rubbing him on the elbowes, and spurning three or four times a Spaniel of Mr Woodhouses following his master and Master Hall.
We will not follow the narrative through the subsequent lawsuit brought by Mallerie against Hall’s servants, the trial presided over by Recorder Fleetwood, the death of Mallerie, who “departed well leanyng to the olde Father of Rome, a dad whome I have heard some say Mr Hall doth not hate” or Hall’s subsequent expulsion from Parliament. This is enough to show the sort of harmless, vain braggarts some of these “Italianates” were, and how easily they acquired the reputation of being desperate fellows.
Mallerie’s lawyer at the trial charged Hall with “following the revenge with an Italian minde learned at Rome. Acworth had lived abroad during Mary’s reign, studying civil law in France and Italy. When Elizabeth came to the throne he was elected public orator of the University of Cambridge, but through being idle, dissolute, and a drunkard, he lost all his preferments in England.
It was then that the Duke bitterly dubbed him an “Italianfyd Inglyschemane,” equal in faithlessness to “a schamlesse Scote”;  i. Edward de Vere, seventeenth Earl of Oxford, famous for his rude behaviour to Sir Philip Sidney, whom he subsequently tried to dispatch with hired assassins after the Italian manner,  might well have been one of the rising generation of courtiers whom Ascham so deplored.
In Ascham’s lifetime he was already a conspicuous gallant, and by , at the age of twenty-two, he was the court favourite. The friends of the Earl of Rutland, keeping him informed of the news while he was fulfilling in Paris those heavy duties of observation which Cecil mapped out for him, announce that “There is no man of life and agility in every respect in Court, but the Earl of Oxford. At the very time when the Queen “delighted more in his personage and his dancing and valiantness than any other,”  Oxford betook himself to Flanders–without licence.
Though his father-in-law Burghley had him brought back to the indignant Elizabeth, the next year he set forth again and made for Italy. From Siena, on January 3rd, , he writes to ask Burghley to sell some of his land so as to disburden him of his debts, and in reply to some warning of Burghley’s that his affairs in England need attention, replies that since his troubles are so many at home, he has resolved to continue his travels.
In another letter also  he assures Cecil that he means to acquaint himself with Sturmius–that educator of youth so highly approved of by Ascham.
He did not know this till his late return to Venice. He has been grieved with a fever. The letter concludes with a mention that he has taken up of Baptista Nigrone crowns, which he desires repaid from the sale of his lands, and a curt thanks for the news of his wife’s delivery. From Paris, after an interval of six months, he declares his pleasure at the news of his being a father, but makes no offer to return to England. Rather he intends to go back to Venice. He “may pass two or three months in seeing Constantinople and some part of Greece.
However, Burghley says, “I wrote to Pariss to hym to hasten hym homewards,” and in April , he landed at Dover in an exceedingly sulky mood. He refused to see his wife, and told Burghley he might take his daughter into his own house again, for he was resolved “to be rid of the cumber.
Certain results of his travel were pleasing to his sovereign, however. For he was the first person to import to England “gloves, sweete bagges, a perfumed leather Jerkin, and other pleasant things. Arthur Hall and the Earl of Oxford will perhaps serve to show that many young men pointed out as having returned the worse for their liberty to see the world, were those who would have been very poor props to society had they never left their native land. Weak and vain striplings of entirely English growth escaped the comment attracted by a sinner with strange garments and new oaths.
For in those garments themselves lay an offence to the commonwealth. I need only refer to the well-known jealousy, among English haberdashers and milliners, of the superior craft of Continental workmen, behind whom English weavers lagged: Henry the Eighth used to have to wear hose cut out of pieces of cloth–on that leg of which he was so proud–unless “by great chance there came a paire of Spanish silke stockings from Spaine.
Wrapped up with economic acrimony there was a good deal of the hearty old English hatred of a Frenchman, or a Spaniard, or any foreigner, which was always finding expression. Either it was the ‘prentices who rioted, or some rude fellow who pulls up beside the carriage of the Spanish ambassador, snatches the ambassador’s hat off his head and “rides away with it up the street as fast as he could, the people going on and laughing at it,”  or it was the Smithfield officers deputed to cut swords of improper length, who pounced upon the French ambassador because his sword was longer than the statutes allowed.
Her Majestie is greatly offended with the officers, in that they wanted judgement. There was also a dislike of the whole new order of things, of which the fashion for travel was only a phase: dislike of the new courtier who scorned to live in the country, surrounded by a huge band of family servants, but preferred to occupy small lodgings in London, and join in the pleasures of metropolitan life.
The theatre, the gambling resorts, the fence-schools, the bowling alleys, and above all the glamor of the streets and the crowd were charms only beginning to assert themselves in Elizabethan England. But the popular voice was loud against the nobles who preferred to spend their money on such things instead of on improving their estates, and who squandered on fine clothes what used to be spent on roast beef for their retainers.
Greene’s Quip for an Upstart Courtier parodies what the new and refined Englishman would say Time hath set a new edge on gentlemen’s humours and they show them as they should be: not like gluttons as their fathers did, in chines of beefe and almes to the poore, but in velvets, satins, cloth of gold, pearle: yea, pearle lace, which scarce Caligula wore on his birthday.
On the whole, we may say that the objections to foreign travel rose from a variety of motives. Ascham doubtless knew genuine cases of young men spoiled by too much liberty, and there were surely many obnoxious boys who bragged of their “foreign vices. Lastly, there was another element in the protest against foreign travel, which grew more and more strong towards the end of the reign of Elizabeth and the beginning of James the First’s, the hatred of Italy as the stronghold of the Roman Catholic Church, and fear of the Inquisition.
Warnings against the Jesuits are a striking feature of the next group of Instructions to Travellers. The quickening of animosity between Protestants and Catholics in the last quarter of the sixteenth century had a good deal to do with the censure of travel which we have been describing. In their fear and hatred of the Roman Catholic countries, Englishmen viewed with alarm any attractions, intellectual or otherwise, which the Continent had for their sons.
They had rather have them forego the advantages of a liberal education than run the risk of falling body and soul into the hands of the Papists. The intense, fierce patriotism which flared up to meet the Spanish Armada almost blighted the genial impulse of travel for study’s sake. It divided the nations again, and took away the common admiration for Italy which had made the young men of the north all rush together there. We can no longer imagine an Englishman like Selling coming to the great Politian at Bologna and grappling him to his heart–“arctissima sibi conjunxit amicum familiaritate,”  as the warm humanistic phrase has it.
In the seventeenth century Politian would be a “contagious Papist,” using his charm to convert men to Romanism, and Selling would be a “true son of the Church of England,” railing at Politian for his “debauch’d and Popish principles.
They had scarcely started before the Reformation called it a place of abomination. Lord Burghley, who in Elizabeth’s early days had been so bent on a foreign education for his eldest son, had drilled him in languages and pressed him to go to Italy,  at the end of his long life left instructions to his children: “Suffer not thy sonnes to pass the Alps, for they shall learn nothing there but pride, blasphemy, and atheism. And if by travel they get a few broken languages, that shall profit them nothing more than to have one meat served on divers dishes.
The mother of Francis Bacon affords a good example of the Puritan distrust of going “beyond seas. All through his prolonged stay abroad she chafed and fretted, while Anthony perversely remained in France, gaining that acquaintance with valuable correspondents, spies, and intelligencers which later made him one of the greatest authorities in England on continental politics. He had a confidential servant, a Catholic named Lawson, whom he sent over to deliver some important secret news to Lord Burghley.
Lady Bacon, in her fear lest Lawson’s company should pervert her son’s religion and morals, had the man arrested and detained in England. His anxious master sent another man to plead with his mother for Lawson’s release; but in vain.
The letter of this messenger to Anthony will serve to show the vehemence of anti-Catholic feelings in a British matron in She cannot abide to hear of you, as she saith, nor of the other especially, and told me plainly she should be the worse this month for my coming without you, and axed me why you could not have come from thence as well as myself.
It was not only a general hatred of Roman Catholics which made staunch Protestants anxious to detain their sons from foreign travel towards the end of Elizabeth’s reign, but a very lively and well-grounded fear of the Inquisition and the Jesuits.
When England was at war with Spain, any Englishman caught on Spanish territory was a lawful prisoner for ransom; and since Spanish territory meant Sicily, Naples, and Milan, and Rome was the territory of Spain’s patron, the Pope, Italy was far from safe for Englishmen and Protestants. Even when peace with Spain was declared, on the accession of James I. There is a letter, for instance, to Salisbury from one of his agents on the Continent, concerning overtures made to him by the Pope’s nuncio, to decoy some Englishman of note–young Lord Roos or Lord Cranborne–into papal dominions, where he might be seized and detained, in hope of procuring a release for Baldwin the Jesuit.
Send me, I pray you, a note of the chief towns to be passed through. I care not for seeing places, but to go thither the shortest and safest way. Bedell’s fears were not without reason, for the very next year occurred the arrest of the unfortunate Mr Mole, whose case was one of the sensations of the day.
Fuller, in his Church History , under the year , records how He was appointed by Thomas, Earl of Exeter, to be Governour in Travail to his Grandchilde, the Lord Ross, undertaking the charge with much reluctance as a presage of ill successe and with a profession, and a resolution not to passe the Alpes. In vain doth Mr Molle dissuade him, grown now so wilfull, he would in some sort govern his Governour.
What should this good man doe? To leave him were to desert his trust, to goe along with him were to endanger his own life. At last his affections to his charge so prevailed against his judgment, that unwillingly willing he went with him.
Now, at what rate soever they rode to Rome, the fame of their coming came thither before them; so that no sooner had they entered their Inne, but Officers asked for Mr Molle, took and carried him to the Inquisition-House, where he remained a prisoner whilest the Lord Ross was daily feasted, favoured, entertained: so that some will not stick to say, That here he changed no Religion for a bad one.
No threats could persuade Mr Mole to renounce his heresy, and though many attempts were made to exchange him for some Jesuits caught in England, he lay for thirty years in the prison of the Inquisition, and died there, at the age of eighty-one.
It was part of the policy of the Jesuits, according to Sir Henry Wotton, to thus separate their tutors from young men, and then ply the pupils with attentions and flattery, with a view to persuading them into the Church of Rome.
Not long after the capture of Mole, Wotton writes to Salisbury of another case of the same sort. And doubtlessly as we collect now upon the matter if Sir John Harington  had either gone the Roman Journey, or taken the ordinary way in his remove thitherwards out of Tuscany, the like would have befallen his director also, a gentleman of singular sufficiency;  for it appeareth a new piece of council infused into the Pope by his artisans the Jesuits to separate by some device their guides from our young noblemen about whom they are busiest and afterwards to use themselves for aught I can yet hear with much kindness and security, but yet with restraint when they come to Rome of departing thence without leave; which form was held both with the Lords Rosse and St Jhons, and with this Lord Wentworthe and his brother-in-law at their being there.
And we have at the present also a like example or two in Barons of the Almaign nation of our religion, whose governors are imprisoned, at Rome and Ferrara; so as the matter seemeth to pass into a rule. And albeit thitherto those before named of our own be escaped out of that Babylon as far as I can penetrate without any bad impressions, yet surely it appeareth very dangerous to leave our travellers in this contingency; especially being dispersed in the middle towns of Italy whither the language doth most draw them certain nimble pleasant wits in quality of interceptors, who deliver over to their correspondents at Rome the dispositions of gentlemen before they arrive, and so subject them both to attraction by argument, and attraction by humour.
Wotton did not overrate the persuasiveness of the Jesuits. Lord Roos became a papist. Wotton’s own nephew, Pickering, had been converted in Spain, on his death-bed, although he had been, according to the Jesuit records, “most tenacious of the corrupt religion which from his tender youth he had imbibed. Another conversion of the same sort had been made by Father Walpole at Valladolid, the year before. Sir Thomas Palmer came to Spain both for the purpose of learning the language and seeing the country.
Therefore, perceiving himself to be in danger of death, he set to work to reconcile himself with the Catholic Church. Having received all the last Sacraments he died, and was honourably interred with Catholic rites, to the great amazement also of the English Protestants, who in great numbers were in the city, and attended the funeral.
There is nothing surprising in these death-bed conversions, when we think of the pressure brought to bear on a traveller in a strange land.
As soon as he fell sick, the host of his inn sent for a priest, and if the invalid refused to see a ghostly comforter that fact discovered his Protestantism. Whereupon the physician and apothecary, the very kitchen servants, were forbidden by the priest to help him, unless he renounced his odious Reformed Religion and accepted Confession, the Sacrament, and Extreme Unction. If he died without these his body was not allowed in consecrated ground, but was buried in the highway like a very dog.
It is no wonder if sometimes there was a conversion of an Englishman, lonely and dying, with no one to cling to. We must remember, also, how many reputed Protestants had only outwardly conformed to the Church of England for worldly reasons. They could not enter any profession or hold any public office unless they did. But their hearts were still in the old faith, and they counted on returning to it at the very end.
In the hour of death men turn to old affections. And so in several ways one can account for Sir Francis Cottington, Ambassador to Spain, who fell ill, confessed himself a Catholic; and when he recovered, once more became a Protestant. The mere force of environment, according to Sir Charles Cornwallis, Ambassador to Spain from , was enough to change the religion of impressionable spirits.
His reports to England show a constant struggle to keep his train of young gentlemen true to their national Church. The Spanish Court was then at Valladolid, in which city flourished an especially strong College of Jesuits.
Thence Walpole, and other dangerous persuaders, made sallies upon Cornwallis’s fold. At first the Ambassador was hopeful Two of myne own Followers I have found corrupted, the one in such sorte as he refused to come to Prayers, whom I presently discharged; the other being an honest and sober young Gentleman, and one that denieth not to be present both at Prayers and Preachinge, I continue still, having good hope that I shall in time reduce him.
But within a month he has to report the conversion of Sir Thomas Palmer, and within another month, the loss of even his own chaplain. In a week the chaplain wrote for a prolongation of his stay, making discourse of “a strange Tempest that came upon him in the way, of visible Fire that fell both before and behind him, of an Expectation of present Death, and of a Vowe he made in that time of Danger.
The chaplain never came back. He had turned Romanist. The reasons for the headway of Catholicism in the reign of James I. To explain the agitated mood of our Precepts for Travellers, it is necessary only to call attention to the fact that Protestantism was just then losing ground, through the devoted energy of the Jesuits. Even in England, they were able to strike admiration into the mind of youth, and to turn its ardour to their own purposes.
But in Spain and in Italy, backed by their impressive environment and surrounded by the visible power of the Roman Church, they were much more potent. The English Jesuits in Rome–Oxford scholars, many of them–engaged the attentions of such of their university friends or their countrymen who came to see Italy, offering to show them the antiquities, to be guides and interpreters. How much the English Government feared the influence of the Jesuits upon young men abroad may be seen by the increasing strictness of licences for travellers.
The ordinary licence which everyone but a known merchant was obliged to obtain from a magistrate before he could leave England, in gave permission with the condition that the traveller “do not haunte or resorte unto the territories or dominions of any foreine prince or potentate not being with us in league or amitie, nor yet wittinglie kepe companie with any parson or parsons evell affected to our State.
Lord Zouche grumbled exceedingly at the limitations of his licence. This restraint is truly as an imprisonment, for I know not how to carry myself; I know not whether I may pass upon the Lords of Venis, and the Duke of Florens’ territories, because I know not if they have league with her Majesty or no. To come to our Instructions for Travellers, as given in the reign of James I.
Sir Robert Dallington, in his Method for Travell ,  gives first place to the question of remaining steadfast in one’s religion:. And it is to be feared, that he which is of one religion in his youth, and of another in his manhood, will in his age be of neither Now what should one say of such men but as the Philosopher saith of a friend, ‘Amicus omnium, Amicus nullorum,’ A professor of both, a believer in neither.
To this effect I must precisely forbid him the fellowship or companie of one sort of people in generall: these are the Jesuites, underminders and inveiglers of greene wits, seducers of men in matter of faith, and subverters of men in matters of State, making of both a bad christian, and worse subject.
These men I would have my Travueller never heare, except in the Pulpit; for  being eloquent, they speake excellent language; and being wise, and therefore best knowing how to speake to best purpose, they seldome or never handle matter of controversie.
Our best authority in this period of travelling is Fynes Moryson, whose Precepts for Travellers  are particularly full. Moryson is well known as one of the most experienced travellers of the late Elizabethan era.
On a travelling Fellowship from Peterhouse College, Cambridge, in he made a tour of Europe, when the Continent was bristling with dangers for Englishmen. Spain and the Inquisition infected Italy and the Low Countries; France was full of desperate marauding soldiers; Germany nourished robbers and free-booters in every forest. It was the particular delight of Fynes Moryson to run into all these dangers and then devise means of escaping them. He never swerved from seeing whatever his curiosity prompted him to, no matter how forbidden and perilous was the venture.
Disguised as a German he successfully viewed the inside of a Spanish fort;  in the character of a Frenchman he entered the jaws of the Jesuit College at Rome. For instance, when he was plucked bare by the French soldiers of even his inner doublet, in which he had quilted his money, he was by no means left penniless, for he had concealed some gold crowns in a box of “stinking ointment” which the soldiers threw down in disgust.
His Precepts for Travellers are characteristically canny. Never tell anyone you can swim, he advises, because in case of shipwreck “others trusting therein take hold of you, and make you perish with them. We are not all like Amadis or Rinalldo, to incounter an hoste of men.
And to the end he may leave nothing behind him in his Innes, let the visiting of his chamber, and gathering his things together, be the last thing he doth, before hee put his foote into the stirrup. The whole of the Precepts is marked by this extensive caution. Since, as Moryson truly remarks, travellers meet with more dangers than pleasures, it is better to travel alone than with a friend. And surely there happening many dangers and crosses by the way, many are of such intemperate affections, as they not only diminish the comfort they should have from this consort, but even as Dogs, hurt by a stone, bite him that is next, not him that cast the stone, so they may perhaps out of these crosses grow to bitterness of words betweene themselves.
Lest the traveller should become too well known to them, let him always declare that he is going no further than the next city. Arrived there, he may give them the slip and start with fresh consorts. Moryson himself, when forced to travel in company, chose Germans, kindly honest gentlemen, of his own religion. He could speak German well enough to pass as one of them, but in fear lest even a syllable might betray his nationality to the sharp spies at the city gates, he made an agreement with his companions that when he was forced to answer questions they should interrupt him as soon as possible, and take the words out of his mouth, as though in rudeness.
If he were discovered they were to say they knew him not, and flee away. Moryson advised the traveller to see Rome and Naples first, because those cities were the most dangerous. Men who stay in Padua some months, and afterwards try Rome, may be sure that the Jesuits and priests there are informed, not only of their coming, but of their condition and appearance by spies in Padua. It were advisable to change one’s dwelling-place often, so to avoid the inquiries of priests.
At Easter, in Rome, Moryson found the fullest scope for his genius. A few days before Easter a priest came to his lodgings and took the inmates’ names in writing, to the end that they might receive the Sacrament with the host’s family. Moryson went from Rome on the Tuesday before Easter, came to Siena on Good Friday, and upon Easter eve ” pretending great business ” darted to Florence for the day.
On Monday morning he dodged to Pisa, and on the folowing, back to Siena. The conception of travel one gathers from Fynes Moryson is that of a very exciting form of sport, a sort of chase across Europe, in which the tourist was the fox, doubling and turning and diving into cover, while his friends in England laid three to one on his death.
So dangerous was travel at this time, that wagers on the return of venturous gentlemen became a fashionable form of gambling. Sir Henry Wotton was a celebrated product of foreign education in these perilous times. As a student of political economy in he led a precarious existence, visiting Rome with the greatest secrecy, and in elaborate disguise.
For years abroad he drank in tales of subtlety and craft from old Italian courtiers, till he was well able to hold his own in intrigue. By nature imaginative and ingenious, plots and counterplots appealed to his artistic ability, and as English Ambassador to Venice, he was never tired of inventing them himself or attributing them to others.
It was this characteristic of Jacobean politicians which Ben Jonson satirized in Sir Politick-Would-be, who divulged his knowledge of secret service to Peregrine in Venice. Greatly excited by the mention of a certain priest in England, Sir Politick explains:. Sir Henry Wotton’s letter to Milton must not be left out of account of Jacobean advice to travellers. It is brief, but very characteristic, for it breathes the atmosphere of plots and caution. Admired for his great experience and long sojourn abroad, in his old age, as Provost of Eton, Sir Henry’s advice was much sought after by fathers about to send their sons on the Grand Tour.
Forty-eight years after he himself set forth beyond seas, he passed on to young John Milton “in procinct of his travels,” his favourite bit of wisdom, learned from a Roman courtier well versed in the ways of Italy: “I pensieri stretti e il viso sciolto. So much for the admonitory side of instructions for travellers at the opening of the seventeenth century. Italy, we see, was still feared as a training-ground for “green wits.
Parents could be easily alarmed by any possibility of their sons’ conversion to Romanism. For the penalties of being a Roman Catholic in England were enough to make an ambitious father dread recusancy in his son. Though a gentleman or a nobleman ran no risk of being hanged, quartered, disembowelled and subjected to such punishments as were dealt out to active and dangerous priests, he was regarded as a traitor if he acknowledged himself to be a Romanist.
At any moment of anti-Catholic excitement he might be arrested and clapped into prison. Drearier than prison must have been his social isolation.
For he was cut off from his generation and had no real part in the life of England. Under the laws of James he was denied any share in the Government, could hold no public office, practise no profession. Neither law nor medicine, nor parliament nor the army, nor the university, was open to him. Banished from London and the Court, shunned by his contemporaries, he lurked in some country house, now miserably lonely, now plagued by officers in search of priests.
At last, generally, he went abroad, and wandered out his life, an exile, despised by his countrymen, who met him hanging on at foreign Courts; or else he sought a monastery and was buried there. To be sure, the laws against recusants were not uniformly enforced; papistry in favourites and friends of the king was winked at, and the rich noblemen, who were able to pay fines, did not suffer much.
But the fact remains that for the average gentleman to turn Romanist generally meant to drop out of the world. The admonitions of their elders did not keep young men from going to Italy, but as the seventeenth century advanced the conditions they found there made that country less attractive than France.
The fact that the average Englishman was a Protestant divided him from his compeers in Italy and damped social intercourse. He was received courteously and formally by the Italian princes, perhaps, for the sake of his political uncle or cousin in England, but inner distrust and suspicion blighted any real friendship. Unless the Englishman was one of those who had a secret, half-acknowledged allegiance to Romanism, there could not, in the age of the Puritans, be much comfortable affection between him and the Italians.
The beautiful youth, John Milton, as the author of excellent Latin verse, was welcomed into the literary life of Florence, to be sure, and there were other unusual cases, but the typical traveller of Stuart times was the young gentleman who was sent to France to learn the graces, with a view to making his fortune at Court, even as his widowed mother sent George Villiers, afterwards Duke of Buckingham. The Englishmen who travelled for “the complete polishing of their parts” continued to visit Italy, to satisfy their curiosity, but it was rather in the mood of the sight-seer.
Only malcontents, at odds with their native land, like Bothwell, or the Earl of Arundel, or Leicester’s disinherited son, made prolonged residence in Italy.
Aspiring youth, seeking a social education, for the most part hurried to France. For it was not only a sense of being surrounded by enemies which during the seventeenth century somewhat weakened the Englishman’s allegiance to Italy, but the increasing attractiveness of another country. By it was said of France that “Unto no other countrie, so much as unto this, doth swarme and flow yearly from all Christian nations, such a multitude, and concourse of young Gentlemen, Marchants, and other sorts of men: some, drawen from their Parentes bosoms by desire of learning; some, rare Science, or new conceites; some by pleasure; and others allured by lucre and gain But among all other Nations, there cometh not such a great multitude to Fraunce from any Country, as doth yearely from this Isle England , both of Gentlemen, Students, Marchants, and others.
Held in peace by Henry of Navarre, France began to be a happier place than Italy for the Englishman abroad. Germany was impossible, because of the Thirty Years’ War; and Spain, for reasons which we shall see later on, was not inviting. Though nominally Roman Catholic, France was in fact half Protestant. Besides, the French Court was great and gay, far outshining those of the impoverished Italian princes.
It suited the gallants of the Stuart period, who found the grave courtesy of the Italians rather slow. Learning, for which men once had travelled into Italy, was no longer confined there. Nor did the Cavaliers desire exact classical learning.
A knowledge of mythology, culled from French translations, was sufficient. All users running non-genuine copies of Windows, and those without an existing Windows 7 or 8 license, were ineligible for this promotion; although upgrades from a non-genuine version were possible, they result in a non-genuine copy of On the general availability build of Windows 10 the original release , to activate and generate the “digital entitlement” for Windows 10, the operating system must have first been installed as an in-place upgrade.
During the free upgrade, a genuineticket. Once installed, the operating system can be reinstalled on that particular system via normal means without a product key , and the system’s license will automatically be detected via online activation – in essence, the Microsoft Product Activation Server will remember the system’s motherboard and give it the green light for product re-activation.
Since the release of the Fall Creators Update version , Microsoft decided to release multi-edition installation media, to alleviate installation and product activation issues users experienced because of accidentally installing the wrong edition of Windows The Windows Insider Preview version of Windows 10 automatically updated itself to the generally released version as part of the version progression and continues to be updated to new beta builds, as it had throughout the testing process.
Microsoft explicitly stated that Windows Insider was not a valid upgrade path for those running a version of Windows that is ineligible for the upgrade offer; although, if it was not installed with a license carried over from an in-place upgrade to 10 Insider Preview from Windows 7 or 8, the Insider Preview does remain activated as long as the user does not exit the Windows Insider program.
The offer was promoted and delivered via the “Get Windows 10” application also known as GWX , which was automatically installed via Windows Update ahead of Windows 10’s release, and activated on systems deemed eligible for the upgrade offer.
Via a notification area icon, users could access an application that advertised Windows 10 and the free upgrade offer, check device compatibility, and “reserve” an automatic download of the operating system upon its release. Microsoft said that those who reserved Windows 10 would be able to install it through GWX in a phased rollout process. The operating system could alternatively be downloaded at any time using a separate “Media Creation Tool” setup program, that allows for the creation of DVD or USB installation media.
In May , Microsoft announced that the free upgrade offer would be extended to users of assistive technologies ; however, Microsoft did not implement any means of certifying eligibility for this offer, which some outlets thereby promoted as being a loophole to fraudulently obtain a free Windows 10 upgrade.
Microsoft said that the loophole is not intended to be used in this manner. However, another loophole was found that allowed Windows 7 and 8. No word from Microsoft was given whether it will be closed  and some outlets have continued to promote it as a free method of upgrading from the now-unsupported Windows 7. During upgrades, Windows 10 licenses are not tied directly to a product key.
Instead, the license status of the system’s current installation of Windows is migrated, and a “Digital license” known as “Digital entitlement” in version or earlier is generated during the activation process, which is bound to the hardware information collected during the process. If Windows 10 is reinstalled cleanly and there have not been any significant hardware changes since installation such as a motherboard change , the online activation process will automatically recognize the system’s digital entitlement if no product key is entered during installations.
However, unique product keys are still distributed within retail copies of Windows As with previous non-volume-licensed variants of Windows, significant hardware changes will invalidate the digital entitlement, and require Windows to be re-activated.
Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows Update does not allow the selective installation of updates, and all updates including patches, feature updates, and driver software are downloaded and installed automatically.
Users can only choose whether their system will reboot automatically to install updates when the system is inactive, or be notified to schedule a reboot. Version allows wired Ethernet networks to be designated as metered, but Windows may still download certain updates while connected to a metered network.
In version , by installing the August security update and later versions, driver and non-security updates pushed via Windows Update that are considered optional are no longer automatically downloaded and installed in their devices. Updates can cause compatibility or other problems; a Microsoft troubleshooter program allows bad updates to be uninstalled. Under the Windows end-user license agreement , users consent to the automatic installation of all updates, features and drivers provided by the service, and implicitly consent “without any additional notice” to the possibility of features being modified or removed.
Windows Update can also use a peer-to-peer system for distributing updates; by default, users’ bandwidth is used to distribute previously downloaded updates to other users, in combination with Microsoft servers. Users can instead choose to only use peer-to-peer updates within their local area network. The original release of Windows 10 receives mainstream support for five years after its original release, followed by five years of extended support, but this is subject to conditions.
Microsoft stated that these devices would no longer receive feature updates, but would still receive security updates through January The following table collects current status of the aforementioned updating and support of different branches of Windows Windows 10 is often described by Microsoft as being a “service”, as it receives regular “feature updates” that contain new features and other updates and fixes. For example, version was released in September the ninth month of This was changed with the 20H2 release where “MM” represents the half of the year in which the update was released, for example H1 for the first half and H2 for the second half.
Before version , the pace at which feature updates are received by devices was dependent on which release channel was used.
Each build of Windows 10 is supported for 18 months after its original release. Once a stable build is certified by Microsoft and its partners as being suitable for broad deployment, the build is then released on the “Semi-Annual Channel” formerly “Current Branch for Business”, or “CBB” , which is supported by the Pro and Enterprise editions of Windows The Windows Insider branches receive unstable builds as they are released; it is divided into two channels, “Dev” which receives new builds immediately after their release , and “Beta” whose releases are slightly delayed from their “Dev” release.
For this reason, it excludes Cortana, Microsoft Store, and all bundled Universal Windows Platform apps including but not limited to Microsoft Edge, hence these builds ship only with Internet Explorer as browser. In July , Microsoft announced changes in the terminology for Windows branches as part of its effort to unify the update cadence with that of Office ProPlus and Windows Server In February , Microsoft announced changes again in delivering updates in beginning of release of version : a single SAC will be released and SAC-T will be retired, and users are no longer able to switch to different channels.
Instead, these updates can be deferred from 30 to 90 days, or depending how the device was configured to deferred the updates. Feature updates prior to version were distributed solely as an in-place upgrade installation, requiring the download of a complete operating system package approximately 3. Unlike previous builds, version was designed primarily as an update rollup version of , which focused primarily on minor feature additions and enhancements.
For upgrades to from , a new delivery method was used where its changes were delivered as part of the monthly cumulative update, but were left in a dormant state until the update “enablement” patch is installed. The full upgrade process was still used for those using builds prior to In May , Microsoft unveiled Fluent Design System previously codenamed “Project Neon” , a revamp of Microsoft Design Language 2 that will include guidelines for the designs and interactions used within software designed for all Windows 10 devices and platforms.
The new design language will include the more prominent use of motion, depth, and translucency effects. Microsoft stated that the implementation of this design language would be performed over time, and it had already started to implement elements of it in Creators Update and Fall Creators Update.
On December 7, , Microsoft announced that, as part of a partnership with Qualcomm, it planned to introduce support for running Win32 software on ARM architecture with a bit x86 processor emulator, in Terry Myerson stated that this move would enable the production of Qualcomm Snapdragon -based Windows devices with cellular connectivity and improved power efficiency over Intel-compatible devices, and still capable of running the majority of existing Windows software unlike the previous Windows RT , which was restricted to Windows Store apps.
Microsoft is initially targeting this project towards laptops. In August , Microsoft began testing changes to its handling of the user interface on convertible devices—downplaying the existing “Tablet Mode” option in favor of presenting the normal desktop with optimizations for touch when a keyboard is not present, such as increasing the space between taskbar buttons and displaying the virtual keyboard when text fields are selected.
In April , the ability to run Linux applications using a graphical user interface , such as Audacity , directly in Windows, was introduced as a preview. The basic hardware requirements to install Windows 10 were initially the same as those for Windows 8 and Windows 8. As of the May update, the minimum disk space requirement has been increased to 32 GB. In addition, on new installations, Windows permanently reserves up to 7 GB of disk space in order to ensure proper installation of future feature updates.
The bit variants require a CPU that supports certain instructions. Some pre-built devices may be described as “certified” by Microsoft. Unlike Windows 8, OEMs are no longer required to make Secure Boot settings user-configurable, meaning that devices may optionally be locked to run only Microsoft-signed operating systems. Windows 10 version and later do not support Intel Clover Trail system-on-chips, per Microsoft’s stated policy of only providing updates for devices during their OEM support period.
Starting with Windows 10 version , Microsoft will require new OEM devices to use bit processors, and will therefore cease the distribution of x86 bit variants of Windows 10 via OEM channels.
The bit variants of Windows 10 will remain available via non-OEM channels, and Microsoft will continue to “[provide] feature and security updates on these devices”. The maximum amount of RAM that Windows 10 can support varies depending on the product edition and the processor architecture. Windows 10 supports up to two physical processors. Windows 10 received generally positive reviews, with most reviewers considering it superior to its predecessor Windows 8.
The Edge browser was praised for its performance, although it was not in a feature-complete state at launch. While considering them a “great idea in principle”, concerns were shown for Microsoft’s focus on the universal app ecosystem:. It’s by no means certain that developers are going to flock to Windows 10 from iOS and Android simply because they can convert their apps easily.
It may well become a no-brainer for them, but at the moment a conscious decision is still required. Engadget was similarly positive, noting that the upgrade process was painless and that Windows 10’s user interface had balanced aspects of Windows 8 with those of previous versions with a more mature aesthetic. Cortana’s always-on voice detection was considered to be its “true strength”, also citing its query capabilities and personalization features, but noting that it was not as pre-emptive as Google Now.
Windows 10’s stock applications were praised for being improved over their Windows 8 counterparts, and for supporting windowed modes. The Xbox app was also praised for its Xbox One streaming functionality, although recommending its use over a wired network because of inconsistent quality over Wi-Fi.
In conclusion, it was argued that “Windows 10 delivers the most refined desktop experience ever from Microsoft, and yet it’s so much more than that. It’s also a decent tablet OS, and it’s ready for a world filled with hybrid devices.
And, barring another baffling screwup, it looks like a significant step forward for mobile. Heck, it makes the Xbox One a more useful machine. On the other hand Ars Technica panned the new Tablet mode interface for removing the charms and app switching, making the Start button harder to use by requiring users to reach for the button on the bottom-left rather than at the center of the screen when swiping with a thumb, and for making application switching less instantaneous through the use of Task View.
Microsoft Edge was praised for being “tremendously promising”, and “a much better browser than Internet Explorer ever was”, but criticized it for its lack of functionality on-launch.
In conclusion, contrasting Windows 8 as being a “reliable” platform albeit consisting of unfinished concepts, Windows 10 was considered “the best Windows yet”, and was praised for having a better overall concept in its ability to be “comfortable and effective” across a wide array of form factors, but that it was buggier than previous versions of Windows were on-launch.
Critics have noted that Windows 10 heavily emphasizes freemium services, and contains various advertising facilities. Some outlets have considered these to be a hidden “cost” of the free upgrade offer. Due to the high system requirements of its Windows 10’s successor Windows 11 , some critics have cited Windows 10 being better than its successor and have warned not to switch to Windows 11 given its high system requirement despite very limited new features compared to Windows Up to August , Windows 10 usage was increasing, with it then plateauing ,  while eventually in , it became more popular than Windows 7   though Windows 7 was still more used in some countries in Asia and Africa in As of March [update] , the operating system is running on over a billion devices, reaching the goal set by Microsoft two years after the initial deadline.
Twenty-four hours after it was released, Microsoft announced that over 14 million devices were running Windows According to StatCounter, Windows 10 overtook Windows 8.
For one week in late November , Windows 10 overtook first rank from Windows 7 in the United States, before losing it again. In mid-January , Windows 10 had a slightly higher global market share than Windows 7,  with it noticeably more popular on weekends,  while popularity varies widely by region, e. Windows 10 was then still behind in Africa  and far ahead in some other regions e.
Windows 10 Home is permanently set to download all updates automatically, including cumulative updates, security patches, and drivers, and users cannot individually select updates to install or not.
Concerns were raised that because of these changes, users would be unable to skip the automatic installation of updates that are faulty or cause issues with certain system configurations—although build upgrades will also be subject to public beta testing via Windows Insider program.
An example of such a situation occurred prior to the general release of the operating system, when an Nvidia graphics card driver that was automatically pushed to Windows 10 users via Windows Update caused issues that prevented the use of certain functions, or prevented their system from booting at all.
Criticism was also directed towards Microsoft’s decision to no longer provide specific details on the contents of cumulative updates for Windows Some users reported that during the installation of the November upgrade, some applications particularly utility programs such as CPU-Z and Speccy were automatically uninstalled during the upgrade process, and some default programs were reset to Microsoft-specified defaults such as Photos app, and Microsoft Edge for PDF viewing , both without warning.
Further issues were discovered upon the launch of the Anniversary Update “Redstone” , including a bug that caused some devices to freeze but addressed by cumulative update KB, released on August 31, ,   and that fundamental changes to how Windows handles webcams had caused many to stop working. A Gartner analyst felt that Windows 10 Pro was becoming increasingly inappropriate for use in enterprise environments because of support policy changes by Microsoft, including consumer-oriented upgrade lifecycle length, and only offering extended support for individual builds to Enterprise and Education editions of Windows Critics have acknowledged that Microsoft’s update and testing practices had been affecting the overall quality of Windows In particular, it was pointed out that Microsoft’s internal testing departments had been prominently affected by a major round of layoffs undertaken by the company in Microsoft relies primarily on user testing and bug reports via the Windows Insider program which may not always be of sufficient quality to identify a bug , as well as correspondence with OEMs and other stakeholders.
In the wake of the known folder redirection data loss bug in the version , it was pointed out that bug reports describing the issue had been present on the Feedback Hub app for several months prior to the public release. Following the incident, Microsoft updated Feedback Hub so that users may specify the severity of a particular bug report.
When announcing the resumption of ‘s rollout, Microsoft stated that it planned to be more transparent in its handling of update quality in the future, through a series of blog posts that will detail its testing process and the planned development of a “dashboard” that will indicate the rollout progress of future updates. Microsoft was criticized for the tactics that it used to promote its free upgrade campaign for Windows 10, including adware -like behaviors,  using deceptive user interfaces to coax users into installing the operating system,     downloading installation files without user consent,   and making it difficult for users to suppress the advertising and notifications if they did not wish to upgrade to In September , it was reported that Microsoft was triggering automatic downloads of Windows 10 installation files on all compatible Windows 7 or 8.
Microsoft officially confirmed the change, claiming it was “an industry practice that reduces the time for installation and ensures device readiness. Other critics argued that Microsoft should not have triggered any downloading of Windows 10 installation files without user consent. In October , Windows 10 began to appear as an “Optional” update on the Windows Update interface, but pre-selected for installation on some systems.
A Microsoft spokesperson said that this was a mistake, and that the download would no longer be pre-selected by default. In March , some users also alleged that their Windows 7 and 8. It was concluded that these users may have unknowingly clicked the “Accept” prompt without full knowledge that this would begin the upgrade. On January 21, , Microsoft was sued in small claims court by a user whose computer had attempted to upgrade to Windows 10 without her consent shortly after the release of the operating system.
The upgrade failed, and her computer was left in a broken state thereafter, which disrupted the ability to run her travel agency. However, in May , Microsoft dropped the appeal and chose to pay the damages.
Shortly after the suit was reported on by the Seattle Times , Microsoft confirmed it was updating the GWX software once again to add more explicit options for opting out of a free Windows 10 upgrade;    the final notification was a full-screen pop-up window notifying users of the impending end of the free upgrade offer, and contained “Remind me later”, “Do not notify me again” and “Notify me three more times” as options.
In March , Microsoft announced that it would display notifications informing users on Windows 7 devices of the upcoming end of extended support for the platform, and direct users to a website urging them to upgrade to Windows 10 or purchase new hardware. This dialog will be similar to the previous Windows 10 upgrade prompts, but will not explicitly mention Windows Privacy advocates and other critics have expressed concern regarding Windows 10’s privacy policies and its collection and use of customer data.
Users can opt out from most of this data collection,   but telemetry data for error reporting and usage is also sent to Microsoft, and this cannot be disabled on non-Enterprise editions of Windows Rock Paper Shotgun writer Alec Meer argued that Microsoft’s intent for this data collection lacked transparency, stating that “there is no world in which 45 pages of policy documents and opt-out settings split across 13 different settings screens and an external website constitutes ‘real transparency’.
The Russian government had passed a federal law requiring all online services to store the data of Russian users on servers within the country by September or be blocked. But Microsoft is held to a different standard than other companies”. The Microsoft Services agreement reads that the company’s online services may automatically “download software updates or configuration changes, including those that prevent you from accessing the Services, playing counterfeit games, or using unauthorized hardware peripheral devices.
In September , Microsoft hid the option to create a local account during a fresh installation if a PC is connected to the internet. This move was criticized by users who did not want to use an online Microsoft account. In late-July , Windows Defender began to classify modifications of the hosts file that block Microsoft telemetry servers as being a severe security risk.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 20 December This article is about the operating system for personal computers. For the related now discontinued operating system for mobile devices, see Windows 10 Mobile. For the series of operating systems produced from to , see Windows 9x. Closed-source source-available through the Shared Source Initiative Some components free and open-source    . List of languages. For the Windows versions produced from to , see Windows 9x.
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Ziff Davis Media. Conde Nast. Purch Inc. Archived from the original on March 2, Retrieved June 16, Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved July 25, Retrieved July 17, Retrieved July 23, Return to SS34 and turn right towards Verbania. After 6 km 4 miles , once in Intra, follow signs to Villa Taranto, where there is a car park. This attractive riverside path, is an 8-km 5-mile round trip and forest-clad hills Above Ferry taking visitors 4 Cannobio navigable on foot or by bike.
It has a Parking good beach, a wide choice of There are several well signposted pay- watersports and plenty of cycle trails and-display car parks; Piazza Martiri della Libert at the northern end is the largest.
Accommodation and 6 Verbania restaurant options are dotted among Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, Piedmont; Tourist Information the pretty, stepped lanes. The town is Mussolini merged the villages of Via A Giovanola 25; ; www.
The Santuario della Santissima This is an attractive town with narrow Tourist Information Piet was built at the site in Then draw is the Villa Taranto open ; ; turn right, following signs to Sacro Easterend Oct. In , capitalizing www. Via Marconi 35, ; ; www. Via Vittorio Veneto 9, ; ; www. Via Beata C Moriggi 43, ; ; www. The resulting 7 km 4 miles of 8 Arcumeggia pathways meander through beds of Casalzuigno, Varese; Lombardia dahlias, camellias and rhododendrons, The stone houses and crumbling past ponds with spectacular fountains courtyards of this mountain village and giant lily pads and lotus flowers.
Figurative works by artists Follow the road for m such as Aligi Sassu and Remo Brindisi yards to the Intra ferry station and adorn the faades of some houses as catch the car ferry to Laveno. Take part of an ongoing regeneration SS signposted Gavirate out of project that began in the s. Laveno to the roundabout in Fracce. To Informal restaurant in a narrow alleyway, serving Piedmontese dishes the north of town well signposted featuring mushrooms and game.
There are also refined waterside restaurant combine landscaped gardens and a good caf. From the parks ridge, This classic trattoria serves traditional Set in the chestnut-tree valley of Cvia the Via Sacra, a 2-km 1-mile fare: the antipasto della casa mixed hors is the village of Casalzuigno, whose cobbled path, leads up the mountain doeuvres is a delicious meal in itself.
Via B Broggi 7; ; www. The villa has splendid frescoes, a Sacro Monte that culminates in the Taverna delle Ruote inexpensive and there are interesting period Baroque Santuario di Santa Maria del This country trattoria serves seasonal kitchens and farm buildings, too. Monte and the village of Santa Maria produce and decent house wine. A 3-minute funicular open off the SP62, north of Varese , ; left on SP7, up the steep switchback weekends and summer whisks less ; www.
Chugging across the lakes explore Isola Bella before moving on the statue of San Carlone 1, then on a ferry really should not be missed. Isola dei Pescatori for a meal of lake Catch a speedboat to its island and Lake Maggiore Express fish at one of the waterside have a dip in the lake before driving to A very reasonably priced round trip restaurants.
Aim to return to Stresa Stresa for an aperitif and dinner. Comos Villas and Villages Como to Brunate Highlights Lakeside splendour Enjoy the serene gardens and magnificent villas that have made Lake Como so famous A change of view Let someone else do the steering and see things from a different perspective on Lake Comos traghetto ferry service Bella Bellagio Visit the prettiest of the lakeside villages, set on the tip of a promontory with a scenic wooded hill behind it Romance and panoramas Explore romantic Varennas exquisite villa gardens and climb up to Castello di Vezio for panoramic lake views.
Comos Villas and Villages Famed for the sparkling beauty of its water, romantic villas and serene lakeside gardens, Lake Como does not disappoint. The natural setting of thickly wooded mountainsides rising up from KEY Nggio beside the lake has been drawing visitors since Roman times Drive route the 19th-century Romantics were particularly attached to the area.
This route includes ferry crossings, shore-hugging roads and country lanes with several leg-stretching jaunts up to panoramic viewpoints. Como, Bellagio, Varenna and other villages are perfect spots to pause and enjoy the water for an afternoon or longer.
Sala Comacina. Nesso Vleso Brienno. Above Appreciating the lakeside scenery from Bellagio, see p61 M. San Bernado Careno. Number of days: 23 days, allowing Bellano half a day in Varenna. Plsio Distance: Approx km 62 miles. In summer, o. Giovanni Most lake hotels and restaurants close from the end of October until Easter. Villa opening hours differ; some are closed La. Guello Grumo on Monday and the gardens usually go.
Pe Main market days: Como: Tue di. Mandello M. Primo Magrglio del Lrio Shopping: Como is famous for its high- o. Ponci m Barni quality silk, supplying Milan and the Onno o worlds fashion houses. Ti town. Workshops in Bellagio produce d. Pi an Stock up too on Valtellina red wines Colma from the northern end of the lake.
Varenna: Festa del Lago recalls the attack by Como , 1st weekend of Jul. For a more restful time, take a drive on the quiet back- roads away from the lakes bustle. Or make use of the ferries by crossing to Villa Balbianello, then back to explore Varenna with its villas and castle. From Como, head north on SS, the lakeside road signposted for Cernobbio. Running along the waters edge, the route weaves past private jetties, glorious retreats and splendid gardens built by European aristocrats and wealthy industrialists over the last few hundred Above View from behind Bellagio out over Lake years.
It is best from the lake, so drivers on this road VISITING COMO enjoyed by wandering the cobbled, are free to enjoy the views, stop to Parking criss-crossing grid of narrow lanes, explore the little hamlets or peek Follow signs to a central multi-storey car a reminder of its Roman origins, and into the celebrity-owned gardens.
Turn Tourist Information town in Brunate see p An ancient left to the Sanctuario just after a bend Piazza Cavour 17, ; ; silk-producing town, Como is a good in the centre of the village.
Park at the www. Next door is the Como, Lombardia; medieval broletto market hall built Set in the folds of the hills above Del Duca moderate This comfortable three-star hotel has in striped marble.
Via Valassina 31, ; ; www. Above left Elegant Villa Balbianello, built in painted life-size plaster figures in information and you can hire bikes on Lake Como Above centre Life-size scenes from the Bible to the Church from most hotels.
It is a Piazza Garibaldi offers some of the Ossuccio Above Comos Piazza San Fedele, wonderful retreat from the lakeside best restaurants and an attractive the site of law courts in Roman times hustle and bustle, with superb views promenade leads down to the lido. Parking and continue north for 1 km half a The centre of Bellagio is car-free so use mile , then follow signs to the parking the spaces on the edge of the village.
Limited free spots green paint are on the right. Otherwise, the blue pay-and- Lenno, Como, Lombardia; display bays are the only option. Some One of many sumptuous lakeside hotels have special deals for parking. Paths lead down This family-run delicatessen offers from the delightful loggia through mouthwatering home-made pasta, beautiful terraced gardens to the salamis and cheeses, and serves a water. Film buffs might recognize the Above Palm-lined lakeside promenade, or good-value lunch in a pretty courtyard.
The house 6 Bellagio La Colombetta moderate Simple, elegant dining rooms provide contains a small museum to its last Como, Lombardia; the backdrop for Sardinian-inspired owner, the explorer and mountaineer On the tip between the two arms of fish specialities, often including Guido Monzino and his Chinese, Lake Como, pretty Bellagio has been home-made pasta, accompanied African and pre-Columbian art.
The by good Italian wines. Continue north on the SS to village centre is a criss-cross of steep, Via Diaz 40, ; ; www.
The 17th-century Il Ristorante di Paolo moderate Villa Serbelloni, a Rockerfeller institute, Excellent food served in a relaxed 5 Menaggio is closed to the public, but its formal and elegant atmosphere.
The staff are Como, Lombardia; terraced gardens can be visited on a helpful about the good wine list. From town, its a nice Silvio moderate there is even a good golf course half-hour stroll to the fishing hamlets, The simple, refined meals based around set up by four British visitors in ; Loppia west or Pescallo east.
Via Imbarcadero 1, ; ; www. Head uphill from the church, and through an olive grove This stylish hotel is centrally located, with a good restaurant, great lake ferry station 1 to the main road. Turn to the 13th-century Castello di Vezio views and charming owners. There are falconry displays at Hotel Du Lac moderate Codeno. A minute walk up this very the weekend and an outdoor trattoria Tucked in a quiet corner of the village, stepped mountain path leads to Vezio, serving good, local specialities.
There is a shaded waterfront bar and breakfast is served outside. Follow the down to Varenna. From the church, NI. Vezio Castello di Vezio. Continue along, under a stone museum with bicycles and Giro- bridge, and take the signposted right winners pink jerseys, donated by fork downhill. A few minutes steep Italys cycling greats. From the walk or drive, accompanied by Romeo Belvedere nearby there are glorious views, leads to the main road unbeatable views of the eastern arm into Varenna.
Turn right and cross over of the lake and the Grigne mountains. At Colma, Il Castello di Vezio inexpensive Turn left out of the villa there is an astronomical This informal al fresco restaurant serves and pop into the splendid observatory and great views in lake fish, grilled meats and their own garden with its relaxing three directions.
Head towards organic vegetables and olive oil. Wash viewpoint at the hotel next it all down with local Valtellina wine. Pian del Tiviano, which is ; www. Here, the Il Cavatappi moderate 5, with its 13th-century road switchbacks down to Reservations are needed at this tiny, parish church and the 10th-century Nesso, a pretty lakeside village. The dishes are excellent chapel of San Giovanni Battista 6, Drive along SP41, turn right onto and include local lake-fish specialities.
There is also a good list of local wines. At SS turn left ; www. Follow signs closed Wed Walk past the tiny harbour on the left to the funicular and nearby car park. Park near the sanctuary. The steep 6-minute Bellagio, Lombardia; ascent passes attractive 19th-century The Madonna del Ghisallo has been villas and their gardens to the summit the patron saint of cyclists since where a small Art Nouveau resort and this sanctuary is a very popular offers a few restaurants and cafs as destination for two wheelers; it is well as strategically sited places to often on the route of the annual drink in the lake views one last time.
SP44 and then SS to reach Como. Villas and views Back roads from Bellagio Ferry-hopping tour After exploring the lanes of Como Head away from the bustle of Bellagio Leave the car in Bellagio 6 and take 1, follow the lake road past splendid 6 on this back route to Como, the ferry www. Sacro Monte di Ossuccio 3 for della Madonna del Ghisallo 8, Return to Bellagio for lunch, then hop panoramic views, before ending up in dedicated to the patron saint of onto the ferry to Varenna 7 to see Menaggio 5 for a swim at the lido.
Lombardys Glacial Valleys Bergamo to Erbusco Highlights Split-level Bergamo Explore ancient lanes of the charming Upper Town, and the grand buildings and avenues of the Lower Town Untouched valleys Well away from the tourist trail, the Bergamasco and Brescian valleys are an insight into life in Lombardy through the ages Low-key lakeside Slow down to the gentle pace at quiet Lago dIseo a world away from the international holiday resorts of the other northern lakes Sparkling vintages Sip the countrys best fizzy wines among the vineyard-clad, gently rolling hills of Franciacorta.
Lombardys Glacial Valleys Many years ago, when Northern Italys glaciers retreated to the Alps, they left behind a series of fertile valleys and pretty lakes backed by rugged hills. Strategically located cities such as Bergamo and Brescia have a long history as Roman, medieval and even Venetian strongholds. But theres evidence of much older human occupation up in the hills of the Val Camonica, where the rocks and caves are peppered with extraordinary prehistoric petroglyphs.
Further down the valley, Lago dIseo is the perfect place to unwind, while the sparkling wines and hills of the Franciacorta provide relief from summer heat. Throughout the region, hearty pastas, polenta, salamis and cheeses are washed down with good table wines.
S e r i a na Ardsio Drive route Cma. Formico m. Zanica Og. Explore the Roman mosaics and other Rovato historic treasures in ancient Brescia. Number of days: 3 days. Distance: Approx km miles.
Road conditions: Light industry and Cedgolo heavy traffic mar the roads near to the cities, but the number of cars decreases Capo di further up the valleys. Tunnels Cemmo should be taken with care.
Niardo are closed on Mon morning. Presolana m i ca Cividate Camuno see the Alpine flowers at their best, n Bienno while autumn is marked by wild M. Altissimo m Esine Castione m a Campolaro mushrooms and wine festivals. Fra Sat morning. Muffetto such as mountain cheese formagella , m M.
Campione Collio as well as Franciacorta sparkling wines. Parzanica M. Guglielmo m sul Mella of Sep. Marone Brozzo 0 kilometres 8 Sale. Nave Rodengo Cazzago S. Maddalena Ospitaletto m. Casaglia Torbole S. The medieval neighbourhoods and elegant avenues of the Citt Bassa Lower Town are good for shopping and transport.
A three-hour walking tour countryside. The bells strike From the car park, turn right up the times at 10pm, recalling an era sweeping main road, Viale Vittorio when the gates would be closed Emanuele II, taking in the mix of for the night. Above The spectacular dome in the Basilica di attractive gated villas and s Pass under the arcade of the Santa Maria Maggiore, Bergamo Fascist architecture.
Just around the palazzo into Piazza del Duomo. If youve got shoe market. Follow Via marble decorated with one, show a funicular ticket when Gombito, almost opposite, Giambattista Tiepolos paying, to get a discount on Sundays.
Tourist Information Gombito 3, the only extant Return to Piazza Vecchia, There are guided walking tours Apr medieval tower of which then turn left up Via Oct: 3pm and bicycles can be hired. The into Colle Aperto 5 for views of the ; www. Head through Porta On Mondays, the lanes are taken over fountain with white marble lions.
SantAlessandro to the upper by a market selling local salamis, cheese Next to the palazzo, the Torre Civica funicular station. Smallholders from the hills nearby sell home-grown produce. Via Castagnete 19, Citt Alta ; ; www. Via Mario Lupo 6, Citt Alta, ; ; www. Piazza Paradiso 1, ; ; www. LO Piazza TR. U Mercato AR. Giacomo VI LL. Funicular AS AN. AN TA. VI LU. DE NT. LL SA. LO SA. TT RLO. V LO LE. Exit the funicular dellOrologio, where the frescoed Cooperativa Citt Alta inexpensive station and follow the road round to and porticoed Palazzo Comunale Great-value, hearty portions of local the left and on to the belvedere area, sports a working astronomical clock pasta, polenta and grilled meats are which has splendid views over 19th- from Still higher stands the served under the vines.
Rest Assunta, with a wonderful 15th- ; ; www. Turn left through Porta the rich kings and bishops trying to The views from this elegant restaurant create a romantic atmosphere.
SantAlessandro to return to Colle bribe their way out of death. Here, catch the bus line 1 to Back at the roundabout, take the San Vigilio, ; ; the car park or walk back along the SS left towards Rovetta, then right www.
To do the latter, on SP53 to Lovere. The park entrance is a South of Bergamo, pick up the minute walk uphill. SS signed Val Seriana and follow signs to Clusone for 32 km 20 miles. Bergamos polenta On the roundabout after the small The yellow cornmeal staple, Fonti Pineta mineral water plant, polenta, features heavily on many follow signs to the centre and use of Bergamos restaurant menus one of the marked car parks.
It can be served with salami, wild mushrooms, melted 2 Clusone Taleggio cheese or roast veal. Or Bergamo, Lombardia; you might find it sliced and High in the mill-lined Val Seriana, chargrilled along with a selection Clusone is an appealing medieval of fresh vegetables.
At the entrance to the park stands the 12th-century Chiesa di San Giorgio, with frescoes of Saint George slaying dragons and the the profile of Florentine writer Dante, who visited the area in the 14th century. Now a low-key resort, the semi-pedestrianized medieval village centre boasts an Above View of Sale Marasino, one of Lago arcaded main square, stone lanes, a dIseos pretty villages Top right Sale 3 Val Camonica handful of decent restaurants and Marasinos church, seen from the lake ferry Brescia, Lombardia; a lakeside promenade with views Above right Iron Age rock carvings at Parco Scattered over the hillsides of the Val across the water to the wooded cliffs Nazionale delle Incisioni Rupestri Camonica are thousands of stones of the opposite shore.
Dating from Neolithic most notably to Monte Isola. One of invallecamonica. Monte Isola is 9 km 6 miles around Casa Visnenza inexpensive parcoincisioni. Via San Faustino 7, Cemmo; that can be explored over a couple degree views. Arriving is part of ; www. Wonderfully evocative and the fun, with lovely views of lakeside dynamic, scenes portray hunts and villages along the way.
Below Passenger ferry cruising across Lago dIseo An organic farm set in the hills above Iseo that offers simple apartments and Return back down the SS42, forking past stunning mountain scenery rooms, plus a restaurant and pool.
After Colline di Iseo, Via Silvio Bonomelli, a series of tunnels, turn right onto the ; ; www. BRESCIA In Marone, just after the parish church Albergo Orologio inexpensive on the right, take the poorly signed Something of a boutique hotel, this is left turn to Zone down the side of the a cosy place in the centre of town.
Municipio building , then drive up the Via Beccaria 17, ; ; winding road to the car park at Zone. Rain erosion. From here take the main road out of town and follow signs to Brescia, which has plenty of on-street pay-parking. Above Small vineyard in Franciacorta, near 10am4pm daily; www. This village lies at the heart of a small Via Mirolte 53, ; ; www. The monasteries Osteria la Grotta moderate that cultivated this land in the Expect Brescian food casoncei salami- stuffed pasta in an elegant setting.
See ; www. At Via Albano Zanella 13, , Erbusco; the heart of the city is the broad, Franciacorta wines ; www. Via dei area for centuries. Attention turned ; www. The nearby a second fermentation in the bottle. In Iseo 5, stock up with picnic Romans and wine tasting provisions before taking the ferry to Explore Roman Brescia 7, then enjoy Urban and rural exploration a tour of the Franciacorta wine region.
Monte Isola 6 to explore the island Spend the morning on a walking tour Head for Erbusco 8 and visit a few for most of the day. Cycle round the of Bergamo 1, enjoying funicular of its wineries perhaps on a bike. After lunch, enjoy the way. Return to Iseo in the late Follow the drives instructions to the countryside of the Val Seriana on afternoon, then drive to Zone to see Erbusco. You may be able to hire a the way to medieval Clusone 2.
Switchbacks and Limonaie Arco to Gargnano Highlights Lake Garda Indulge in watersports at Riva del Garda, or visit the lemon-growing glasshouses along the lakeshore, where olive groves and citrus trees carpet the hillsides Austrian heritage Explore the Germanic heritage and cuisine of Lake Gardas northernmost towns, which were once part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Adrenalin-fuelled drives Corkscrew through the Brasa gorge away from the lake into the wooded, Alpine interior of the Tremosine Enchanting Gargnano Be charmed by this laid-back lakeside village and its peeling Art Nouveau villas and ancient churches.
The climb through thick Molina di Ledro Torbole woodland brings breathtaking views and, at the. The drive ends in dreamy m. Ga Gargnano, set among olive groves and the limonaie sheltered lemon groves that Limone Cima del Fratone give this shoreline its name. Valvestino Monte Denervo m 0 miles 5 La. Pai Number of days: 1 day. KEY Distance: Approx 60 km 37 miles. Drive route Road conditions: Roads are narrow and winding, and busy in summer. The lakeside road plunges through Opposite Narrow streets and brightly painted townhouses, Arco galleried tunnels into dazzling sunlight.
When to go: AprJun is ideal. Autumn, too, is pretty, but most places shut up shop from the end of Oct until Easter. Opening times: Shops tend to open 9am1pm and 37pm MonSat. In villages, some are closed on Mon mornings. Arco became a popular winter retreat in the 19th century, when, as part of the Austrian Empire, its mild climate attracted Central European aristocracy. Explore the wonderful public gardens on Viale delle Palme and an impressive arboretum in the Parco Arciducale open daily , which formed the grounds of the Habsburg Archduke Alberts winter palace.
Follow the well-signposted SS45b Above left Living on the edge in Pieve for 6 km 4 miles to reach the centre 17 km 11 miles. Offering beautiful the spectacular Brasa gorge, and www. Piazza Marconi 1, ; ; www. The pleasant walk up to mountain, where many village centre this ruined fortress is rewarded with car parks are signposted. Leave Riva on SS45bis, heading 4 Pieve Restel de Fer Inexpensive south past Limone sul Garda, for about Tremosine, Brescia, Lombardia; Owned by the friendly Menghelli family One of the many hillside villages in for more than years, this farmhouse the commune of Tremosine, Pieve offers a handful of atmospherically furnished rooms.
The locally sourced has an attractive centre of stone-built food in the restaurant is also excellent. At m 1, ft above the Via Restel de Fer 10, ; lake, there are wonderful views across ; www. This friendly, informal eatery in Riva From the centre, head southwest centre serves hearty dishes of polenta, dumplings and home-made pasta, out of town, following the signposted accompanied by good local wines. To reach the sanctuary by car, follow signs on the road that descends to SS45bis. It is a peaceful spot, reached by a steep minute walk that is Above left View over the Santuario di Madonna rewarded with magnificent views di Montecastello Above right Fresco in the 5 Pieve to Tignale Road and a small caf MarOct: open Santuario di Madonna di Montecastello Brescia, Lombardia daily.
Extend the walk for another 20 Below Boats at Gargnanos harbourside Driving through valleys of beech, ash minutes by following the path past and chestnut, past cool streams, the eremo hermitage up to the Alpine meadows and sheer mountain cross at the top of nearby Monte Cas. Tourist Information the lake below. There are several view- lakeside road, the SS45bis. Turn right Piazzale Boldini 2, ; ; points and picnic spots along the way. The road- signposted, covered car park opposite side car park for the sanctuary is 1 km the tourist office on the main road.
The village is relatively untroubled run by the same family for three by tourism and is perfect for a gentle wander or a lazy afternoon in generations. Rooms have fine period the shade of an orange tree with dreamy lake views. Via Colletta 21, , Villa di A two-hour walking tour possible to peek inside by climbing Gargnano; ; www. The just before the church. Continue Hotel Villa Sostaga expensive cloister of a 13th-century Franciscan down the lane to reach the pretty On the hillside above Gargnano, this welcoming, family-run villa offers monastery stands next to the Baroque main square of Gargnano and its informal luxury in 11 handsomely Church of San Francesco 1 just little marina.
A building near the furnished rooms. There are splendid down on the right. The columns in 16th-century Palazzo Comunale 2, views from the lovely grounds and the cloister are decorated with citrus displays cannonballs that were pool. A well-priced restaurant open fruits a reference to the Franciscan wedged into its walls during the to non-residents serves memorable seasonal specialities. Via Sostaga 19, , Navazzo; the area. Legal wrangles keep the Head round the waterfront and east ; www.
Now part of the University of Milan, the palace was built by the paper and publishing magnates whose patronage can be seen throughout the village in the hospital, the infant school and numerous family houses. The public beach 4 is a few minutes further along on the right in a grassy olive grove. The lane continues past several splendid Liberty Italian Art Nouveau villas,.
This scrubby path leads back home to the Fascist leader Benito to the car park, from where Via Mussolini and his family during the Donatore di Sangue branches off to Republic of Sal see p Continue the Escola Materna Feltrinelli, an along the peaceful lane, past olive infant school, on the left and the groves and occasional glimpses of working limonaie on the right, on the the lake, to reach a large limonaie other side of the main road the and the tiny Romanesque chapel of SS45bis.
The shady cobbled lane San Giacomo di Calino 6. This continues into the charming 11th-century church is one of the neighbourhood of Villa 7, which oldest on the lake. It is a peaceful has a couple of hotels and a tiny place, with a 14th-century fresco of picture-postcard port with a popular St Christopher on the lakeside wall, bar. Down at Via Colletta 44 8, a opposite the tiny shingle beach.
This plaque declares that DH Lawrence lovely spot is ideal for a picnic. Retrace your steps to the car. Below right View of the Riviera di Limonaie a night in Limonaie, or purpose-built terraces Miralago moderate for growing lemon trees, were intro- This lakefront restaurant serves well- OMO. The GI AC. Citrus farming on a commercial This Michelin-starred restaurant has a MU.
The wines are well priced. Lago di Z A. Villa VIA. From the Lake to the Plains Sal to Mantua Highlights Laidback lakeside resorts Relax in the low-key towns that line the lake with their pretty harbours, belle poque villas and fine shingle beaches perfect for a quick dip Wonderful wines Sip the delicious light wines produced by the temperate climate and rolling hills of Cavaion Veronese, to the east and south of Lake Garda Renaissance showpiece Explore medieval and Renaissance Mantua whose elegant piazzas are dominated by the palazzos of power Ruins with a view Clamber the picturesque ruins of a 1st-century AD Roman villa in a charming olive grove at the very tip of Sirmiones promontory.
Inland, it was the bloody battle for Italian independence that marked the wine-growing hills around San Martino, while Puegnago S. Felice del Benaco Mantua was a centre of Renaissance power, as revealed by its del Garda Punta Belvedere rich art and architecture. This itinerary also showcases the Polpenazze dierent facets of this water-dependent region, from rice-covered del Garda Manerba del Garda plains to olive-grove and vineyard-clad hills.
The drive can also Soiano del Lago be linked with Drive 6 to Gargnano see pp for a longer trip. Moniga del Garda Padenghe sul Garda. Desenzano Colombare. Lonato Rivoltella. Re do Vaccarolo. Immerse yourself in the thermal spa waters in Simione for some welcome relaxation. Sample fabulous local produce: oil and wine from Bardolino, and tortellini pasta from Valeggio sul Mincio.
KEY S. Zeno di Montagna Drive route Number of days: 3 days. The Costermano outskirts of the towns are lined by San Vigilio Garda Gazzoli light industry but the roads are flat Rivoli Veronese and well maintained. Ambrogio is an attractive time, too.
Custoza Castellaro delicatessens. Be sure to stock up on nc. Pradelle T i on Cerlongo e. Kids will love the varied and macabre M. Sacca exhibits at Il Vittoriale, followed by a nc. Marmirolo ferry ride, castle visit and a swim. A controversial Parking Brescia, Lombardia; figure, he was known for his affair There are pay-and-display parking sites An attractive and historic town, Sal with the actress Eleanor Dus and, around town, although the multi-storey car park on Via Brunati is the best bet.
For more with Mussolini, for whom he wrote Piazza SantAntonio 4, ; than years it was the capital of the the meaningless Fascist war cry Eia, ; www. The town briefly came to the fore to the prow of the boat Puglia, which The main car park is immediately again during World War II when Hitler DAnnunzio commanded during opposite the ferry point on the south and Mussolini made it the capital of World War I and his own macabre side of town.
It is free out of season the Republic of Sal see right. Fronting mausoleum. Concerts are performed and pay and display at other times. Tourist Information Lungolago Zanardelli, is the porticoed Return to the main road and turn Via Gardesana, ; ; www. Verona, Veneto; Hotel Villa Florida moderate This hotel has small suites and The swallow-tail battlements of the apartments, plus gardens and a pool. The ; www. No children under A good breakfast is included. Via per Albisano 28, ; ; www.
Self-catering suites are also available. Lungolago Barbarani, ; ; www. Via Bocchio 4, ; ; www. It is also home to one of the oldest limonaie, or lemon tree glasshouses, on the lake. South of the villages network of quiet cobbled lanes lies a pleasant shingle beach. Take the main SS south to Bardolino. Parking in the centre is easy. Plus, the end Mon.
The caf-lined lanes lead north The contemporary restaurant in Hotel products can always be sampled at the to the ruins of a 1st-century Roman Bellerive serves locally sourced creations. Carry straight onto Strada Tre times have been drawn by the spa Trattoria BellArrivo moderate Contr, turn right on SP31, through waters tourist office has details.
By the little harbour, this trattoria is a Calmasino, follow signs left to Lazise. Follow signs south for Brescia, cosy spot for tasty, good-value food. Piazza Calderini 10, ; Turn left for pay-and-display car parks. Ideal for a treat. Next to panoramic terrace at the top of this Via Strentelle 3, ; ; the small port stands the Dogana frescoed tower closed Mon , built in www.
Next door, ment for Italian unification. In , Osteria alla Torre moderate the small Romanesque church of San during the wars of independence This friendly place offers old-fashioned Nicol holds 13th-century frescoes.
Take SR south to Peschiera del the bloodiest battles in history. On Via Torre 1, ; ; Garda. Drive through the town centre, 24 June, during the Battle of Solferino, www. Hitler made a last-ditch attempt to His suggestion of creating a neutral rally Fascist Italy against advancing hospital corps to help during wartime Allied troops by establishing the led to the founding of the Red Cross Italian Social Republic of Sal.
Villas in There is also an ossuary and a and palaces on Lake Garda became ministries, while Mussolini and his museum here, displaying love letters, family lived in Gargnano. The bloodied uniforms and tattered flags. Lake Como. Turn left onto SP3 to Vallegio sul Mincio. Highlights Piazza Andrea Mantegna 6, ; On the western border of the Venetian include the tulips and irises in spring ; www. From To hire a bike for a day, register with a passport and leave a deposit at Casa del ing 14th-century Castello Scaligero.
Rigoletto Piazza Sordello Longer- In pretty riverside Borghetto the Pass the left turn to Santa Lucia and term bike hire is available at Mantua Ponte Visconteo, built by the Dukes turn right onto road to Mantua. Over- Bike Viale Piave 22b; ; of Milan in , protected the edge look signs to the centre, follow signs to www. Many hotels also of their territory.
These days, Valeggio is Padova, taking the tangenziale nord have cycles for guests.
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