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Hambatan pemanfaatan ruang ini adalah kemampuan pembuat kebijakan di dalam memahami nature dari science dan teknologi. Agar hasil mitigasi perubahan iklim yang dicapai dari aplikasi kebijakan ini bukan hanya merupakan by product maka perlu di dirumuskan k l langkah-langkah k hl k h penting ti mitigasi iti i perubahan b h ikli yang iklim merupakan produk utama kebijakan energi di Indonesia.
Terimakasih gelangdewi yahoo. Background 2. Global Climate Change 3. The convention aims to make concentration of green house gas emissions GHGs in the atmosphere stabile at the level in which does not danger to the global climate system. The protocol develops regulation concerning procedures, targets, institutions, mechanism in lowering GHGs, compliance procedures and dispute settlement. The Kyoto Protocol is based on the general framework established by the Convention.
It is driven by emission reduction commitments of Annex 1 countries. As developing country with a great population and limited economic ability, Indonesia is very vulnerable against the effect on climate change for the environment and the life of the nation. The project that evidenced reduced emissions will be certified and the CER certified emission reduction will be credited to the investing country. Then the CER will be counted against their national reduction targets.
CDM projects will typically involve Annex I countries as investors and non-Annex I Parties as hosts, essentially joint ventures between developed and developing countries. However, the trading rules do not explicitly require CDM projects to be financed by developed countries; developing countries can initiate their own projects to create certified emission reductions and then sell them to Annex I Parties Unilateral CDM.
Project Design 2. CDM projects must also be additional in terms of budget source. Project investment that is not considered as supportive to sustainable development objectives cannot be claimed as CDM projects, i. So, CDM projects should focus on those sectors. Sistem metrik Sistem Internasional Lebih dikenal dalam dunia secara luas, terdiri atas:!
Untuk memahami, mengendalikan dan menghitug kesalahan dalam pengukuran 2. Untuk memahami dan menghitung secara lebih baik suatu ketidakpastian struktur dan produk rekayasa 4. Modus: nilai yang paling sering muncul! Median: nilai tengan data setelah diurutkan! Sifat termodinamika zat!
Sistem termodinamika! Variabel keadaan! Proses termodinamika! Hukum I Termodinamika! Thedevelopmentoftheplantwillsupporttheincreaseinelectrificationratio andrenewableelectricitygenerationontheIslandofSumba.
Objective The key objective of this Prefeasibility study is to make a first evaluation with respect to economically viable, sustainable and recommendable to build a biomass power plant in Sumba Islandwithbiomasssuppliedfromaplantationforest. Attheendofthispreparationofthisstudy,optionsfordevelopingofsuchbiomasspowerplantshall bepresentedasinputstostakeholdersindeterminingenergygenerationfromrenewableenergyin thisIsland.
Background Sumba Islandhasbeenselectedasan Iconic Island whererenewablesources aretobedeveloped andusedforfulfillingenergydemandintheIsland,therebysubstitutesfossilfueldependency. Through the development, the share of renewable energy for electricity generationcouldgraduallyincreaseandfinallysubstitutetheuseoffossilfuel.
Among renewable sources existed in the Island, biomass from energy plantation is potentially developedforfuelasthesourceofbiomassplantiseaslyfoundandgrowintheIsland,considering the climate of the area and its soil type.
The option for energy plantation is considered desirable sincethebiomassusedforpowergenerationdoesnotjeopardiselocalfoodsecurityand provides benefitsforlocalpopulation,particularlytoeconomicdevelopment.
A continue supply of biomass for power plant is required for maintaining a continue electricity generation. This means that biomass supply security must be considered prior to developing a biomasspowerplant. ProjectCharacteristics EarlystudyofSumbaIslandhasshowedthatthisIslandhasrelativelysignificantbiomasspotential fromfoodcropsresidues. However,itsavailabilityisscatteredinmanyareasmakingitimpractical and inefficient financially not feasible for using as fuel.
Other potential biomass sources for fuel fromthisareaisbiomassfromforestplantationthatisespeciallygrownforbeingusedforenergy generationorcommonlyusedtermasenergyplantation. Easy grown plant type with high productivity is required for an energy plantation development. Leucana Leucochephala Lamtoro Gung has been identified from the study initial site survey to growinmanyareasinthisIslandwhichis covered majoritywitharidland. Therefore,this plantis selectedandarecommendedbiomasstypeforanenergyplantation.
However,since the biomass for the power generation will be sourced from an energy plantation that is to be managedbyathirdparty,suchcompetitioncouldbeminimized. Moreover,itwouldreducebiomass pricefluctuationasthebiomasswillbeobtainedfromapredeterminedagreementwiththethird partyasthebiomassproducer.
Other issue to be considered is the location of biomass source from biomass power plant project site. A reasonable distance of biomass source is required for an acceptable transport price and a feasibleproject. Biomassforenergy generationhasbeenwidelydevelopedaroundtheworldwithcapacityproject rangevariesfromlowerthankWtooverMW. Agridconnectedbiomasspowerprojectsare generally above 5 MW, while off grid projects are typically kW.
Mostaresmall,rangingfromkWto1MW,and useawidevarietyoffeedstocks,includingagriculturalwaste,humanandanimalwaste,andJuliflora, acommonlegumewoodyweed. Woody biomass has been developed for power generation for more than MW using either combustion or gasification technologies. Capacity factors assumed to be in the range of The selection for a grid or nongrid connection depends basically on local electricity supply and demand.
A biomass offgrid project is financially feasible if its electricity generation cost is lower. Meanwhile, a gridconnected biomass power plant will be financiallyfeasibleifitcouldgetbenefitfromgridstariff. The selection of the Island as the iconic one was based on an early assessment conducted by HIVOS which indicated that the Island had abundant new and renewableenergypotential.
Local government regulation of Sumba Timur Regency No 12 of on the Spatial Planning of Sumba Timur Regecy year contains spatial planning structure of Sumba Timur regency which includes the development of energy sources and transmissions systems. This regulation has also set about spatial planning strategy on increasing capacity and electricity service through development of renewable energy PLTA and PLTM , performing assessment and development of interconnection systems of interregional regencies inSumbaIsland.
Other strategy is by increasing electricity capacity and service through an interconnection system with other regencies in Sumba Island. Althoughthedevelopmentofbiomassasoneofrenewableenergysourcehasnotbeenspecifically mentionedinbothlocalgovernmentregulations,thedevelopmentofbiomasspowerplantincluded in the Iconic Island program would certainly in consistence with the development of renewable energyofSumbaTimurandSumbaTengahgovernments.
Thecompanyshall usepotentialnaturalresourcessuchaswater,solar,windandbiomassa. According to MEMR, the government has been continuing to develop distributed electricity generationinlikedistributedsolarpowerplants,windpowerplant,hydropowerplants,1MW biomasspowerplantinSumbaBaratDayaanddistributedBiogas. The peak loadfromtheIslandisapproximately Theoperationofthisplantwillcontributetothe achievementprogramofSumbaasIconicIsland. ExpectedprojectImpactandfuelsustainability Inanefforttohelpstakeholdersinthedecisionmakingprocess,thissection subsection explores theadvantagesanddisadvantagesofproducingandutilizingwoodybiomassasfeedstockforpower generation.
The followings are expected positive impacts and possibly negative impacts on local community, economyandenvironment:. Localcommunitywouldbenefitfromincreasingthereliabilityoravailability ofelectricity. Biomassutilizationwouldcreateandretentlocaljobsinruraleconomies ItisestimatedthatdirectemploymentforabiomasspowerplantisfivetosixpersonperMW installed capacity.
Moreover, biomasscontainsminimalsulphur,therebyavoidingSO2emissionswhichcouldcauseacidrain. Introducing biomass for energy plantation would help avoiding of land degradation such as erosionandbecomingdesert desertification. Once a site is chosen, the next key to the success of the energy plantation is the selection of genetically superior tree species, varieties or clones suitable for the climate, soils, and desired productsoftheenergyplantationplantation.
Mostspeciesachievetheirbestgrowthunderafairly narrowrangeofclimateandsoilconditions,andfailuretomatchspeciestositehasbeenthecause of the failure of many plantation projects. Even within a species that is suited to a particular site, therecanbegreatvariationinthegrowthandwoodcharacteristicsfromdifferentseedsourcesor regionswithinthespeciesrange. Thelargest,cheapest,andfastestgainsinmosttreeimprovement programscanbemadebyassuringtheuseoftheproperspeciesandseedsourceswithinspecies.
Key to producing lowcost biomass is the land base and the quality of sites, which determine to a significant extent the degree of site preparation necessary; the choice of species, spacings and cutting cycles; required cultural management and soil amendments fertilization, weed control, animalcontrol,andpestmanagement ;andfueltransportandlogistics.
Its woody character has several advantages over agricultural wastes particularly in harvesting and storage. Such wastes would generally require short time frame for harvesting and pretreatmentbeforestoragecouldbedoneforprovidingyearroundbiomasssupply.
Itisatropicalspecieswhichgrowswellinareaswithannualrainfallrangingof mmandbestinwarmtemperaturesareas Cdaytemperatures andataltitudeofbelow m. This species tolerates to dry climates mm and to long drought periods of up to 67 months. In the combustion process, energy content, moisture content and chemical composition are the mostimportantbiomasscharacteristicsaffectingcombustionprocesses.
This plant is preferred for wood fuel, and would be the primary candidate for any biomass fuel plantation in Sumba. The species does best on calcareous soils12, such as those found on Sumba Island.
BiomassproductioninSumbaIsland A gridconnected Lamtoro Gung wood fuelled power plant design would need to consider wood sources,woodavailability,locationofpowerplant,andtechnicalcharacteristicsoftheplantutilizing adoptedbiomassasfuel. Thus the knowledge base for establishing plantations in Indonesia is readilyavailableinadditiontothepromisingresultsofpreviousstudiesontheisland.
Itneedsminimummm rainfall. This information has been obtained from a report providedbytheIndonesianCentralBureau. SumbaTimurregency SumbaTimurregencyhastypicallyasemiaridclimate. Theaveragetemperatureinthisregencyin reached The highestaverageprecipitationwasinMarch,whilefromJunethroughOctobertherewasnorainfall at all. SumbaTengahregency This regency is also known to have a semi arid climate. Dry season occurs from the month June throughSeptember,whilerainyseasonoccursnormallyfromDecemberthroughMarch.
Transition periodsoccurinmonthsAprilMayandOctoberNovember. Thus,8monthsinayearisrelativelydry inthisregency. Ananalysisbasedona30yearsclimatedataseries ontemperatureandrainfallshowed that the mean monthly temperature in Nusa Tenggara Timur and the monthly rainfall tend to increaseintherangeof0. Fromtheclimatecharacteristicinallregenciesdescribedabove,itwasconcludedthatLamtoroGung couldbasicallygrowthroughouttheIsland.
Theplantwasfoundtogrowinthesearea,asobserved fromthesitesurvey. Inorderto secureasupplyofthewood,LamtoroGungplantationshouldbeconsideredratherthancollectingit fromlocalareasthatgrowwildlyorareownedbyfarmers.
BasedonthesitesurveyanddiscussionswiththelocalgovernmentofSumba Pemda andForestry Service, Sumba Tengah, Sumba timur, and Sumba Barat were found to be potential areas for Lamtoro Gung energy plantation.
It was confirmed that there are available land areas in Sumba Timur, Sumba Tengah and Sumba Barat regencies for energy plantation. Two locations were identifiedinSumbaTimur36,haand19,ha,onelocationinSumbaTengah 6,ha ,and onelocationinSumbaBarat 5,ha. Dariaspekklimatologi,KabupatenSumbaBaratdipengaruhiolehiklimmusondengan ratarata musim hujan dari 1.
Curah hujan ini sudah dipengaruhiolehkondisihidrologidiKabupatenSumbaBarat. The Waikabubak system is supplied by generation mix consisting of diesel,hydro,andsolarpowerplantswithatotalinstalledcapacityof9. Ready to develop renewable energy in Sumba Island includes hydro potential The development of 1 MW biomass power plant in Waingapu seemstobechangedtoalatertimeinRUPTL,whichstatesthattheplantisallocatedto be commercial by However, this development is likely toexperience barrier so that it could notberealizedasexpected.
ExistingtransmissionlineinSumbaIslandissystemWaingapu,systemWaikabubakWaitabula,and systemisolatedsuppliedbya20kVfeederfrom PLN has started a program for the interconnection of the East and West systems via connection throughthenorthernandcentralroutes. Biomass power plant to be developed could provide electricity to local community or be sent to PLNsgridwhenlocaldemandisalreadyfulfilled. Marketoptionsforbyproducts ExcessHeat:Anyexcessheatfromthepowerplantcouldbeutilizedforbiomassdryingduringpre processing.
FlyAsh Ash generated from biomass power plant could be used for fertilizer. However, this would need furtherconsiderationtodetermineitspotentialmarket.
Theashandwasteproductsfromburningor gasificationwill,inmostcases,besufficientlybenigntoreturntothesoil. Itisalso very valuable to have sitespecific research data on the yields that can be expected from the preferredspecies.
The sitesforenergyplantationintheseregionsareownedbylocalgovernments. Table 4. The climate of this area would still be suitable for Lamtoro Gung energy plantation as it is locatedinnorthernpartofSumbaTimurhavinggenerallyarangeannualprecipitationof mmandanaltitudeoflessthanmasl.
Asin other proposed sites, Lamtoro Gung is expected to grow well in this area where dry season could reachupto8months. Theproposedsitealsocoversprotectionforestwhichcould beusedforenergyplantation. No data of number of rainfall and number of rainy days in Umbu ratu Nggay Subdistrict also in SumbaTengahregency ,becauseinstrumentisnotyetavailable.
SumbaTengahRegency hasonly twoseasons,dryseasonandrainyseason. OnJunetoSeptemberthewindflowwhichcontainslittle moisture,causedthedryseason.
Onthecontrary,onDecembertoMarchthewindflowcontainsa greatdealofmoisture,causedtherainyseason. Thisconditionchangesandturnforahalfofyear, after passing, the transitional period on AprilMay and OctoberNovember. Nevertheless, since SumbaTengahasnotsofarfromAustralia,thegreatdealofmoistureofwindflowcomesfromAsia andPasificOcean,hasreduceafterreachingSumbaTengaharea.
AnditmakesSumbaTengahhas thedryareawhichisrelativelywetin4months JanuaryuntilAprilandDecember andtherestof8 monthsisdry. PlantationofLamtoroGunginthisareais expectedtoresultgoodquantityofwoodfordevelopingabiomasspowerplantinthisIsland. Asnotedinthetableabove,potentialareasfortheplantationsarelocatedinprotectedforestand productionforest. However,theIndonesianforestrylawsandregulationsallowtheuseofProtected Forests Hutan Lindung and Production Forests Hutan Produksi for uses like forest energy plantations.
TheprocessofusingProtectedandProductionforestsforthesepurposesisthroughapplicationto theMinistryofForestry. Anadditionalconversion of 2, ha from the protected forest at this Candidate location to community forest is being proposedbytheForestryOfficeofSumbaTimurtotheMinistryofForestry. Anareaof4,isplannedforplantingofplanttypessuchaseucalyptus,turi,gamal, lamtoro shorttermplant ,andalsojati longtermplant. Minister of Forestry Regulation P. Article 1 Utilizationofprotectedforestinformofareautilization,environmental serviceutilizationandcollectionofnontimberforestproduce.
Article 1 Useofforestareauseintheinterestofdevelopmentbeyondforestry activitiescanonlybemadeinproductionforestareaandprotectedforestarea 25 ProtectedForestsandProductionForestscanbeusedforindustrialorcommercialtimberplantations,communityforest plantations or ecosystem services and nonforestry activities such as renewable energy, rightofway for electricity grid lines,etc.
RKUPHHKispreparedasaworkingplanforallworkingareaofIUPHHKforaperiodof 10 years, which must consider long term management plan KPH and should include among other forest sustainability aspect, business sustainability, environmental balance and social economy developmentoflocalcommunity. Inareaof4,hainSubdistrictLamboyawaslaterincludedasoneofcandidatesitesforenergy plantationinthisreport. Project site selectionisvitalinordertomakecapitalinvestmentaseffectiveaspossibleandtoobtainmaximum results.
Followingaremajorcriteriaforregionsuitabilityforelectrificationusingthebiomasspowersystem: a. StrongGovernmentprioritiesforregionalandcommunitydevelopment b. Localtransmissionlineinfrastructure locationrelativetotheexistinggrid d. An onsite survey was conducted based on the above criteria in conjunction with officials from relevantlocalgovernment,asaresultofwhichfourcandidatesiteswerechosen.
Larger power plant capacity will require more plantationarea. Unlikededicatedenergycrops,theadvantageofwoodybiomassforpowergenerationfuelisthatit doesnothavecriticalharvesttime.
DesadesatersebutsaatiniberadadalamwilayahkecamatanKahaunguEtisebagaiKecamatanbaruyangmekardariKecamatan Paberiwai. Biomasssupplychain Thissectionwillprovidefeedstocksupplyprocesstobiomasspowerplantwhichwillincludethe following: 1. Feedstocksupply 2. Managementpracticestoproduceforestbiomass 3. Harvestingsystem 4. Biomasssupplychainconsideredinthisreportincludesharvesting,transportation,storage,handling andfuelpreparationforpowerplant. As noted earlier in section 5. The provision of this fuel must be well planed and timely executedforacontinuedoperationofthepowerplant.
BiomassfuelistobesourcedfromLamtoroGungplantationswhichareassumedtobemanagedby an authorized party appointed by government. The party shall facilitate and participate and coordinate in biomass supply chain. It is also assumed that the party will also be responsible in biomass preparation wood harvesting and pretreatment. PT Usaha Tani Lestari has indicated willingnesstoestablishandcoordinatethewoodybiomasssupplychain.
Lamtoro Gung is ready for harvesting after months consider as dedicated short rotation woodycrops SRWCs. Lamtoroareprunedduringharvestingseasonandthe prunings branch areusedasamulchandNsource. The harvested log woods are processed into wood chips with size range of mm to suit to feedstocksizeforgasificationaftertransportedtobiomasspowerplantsite.
Itisestimated10 workersareneededfor1MWplant,withworkersforfuelsupply. Thetreesarecuttolengthorleftwholeandareforwarded withgrappleloadersformovingtoalandingareafromwhichareloadedontotrucksfortransporting toapretreatmentfacility.
Incasethatexcessoflaborinthesurroundingplantationareaexistswith low wage rates and costly fuel, felling and forwarding could be performed manually. To be conservative,itisassumed,basedonseveralharvestratesfromreference,thataharvestrateof0. But,thisvaluecouldbedifferentfromthe realplantationlateronatthecandidatesitesduetolocalsiteconditionssuchasplantationdensity, treesize,forwardingdistances,climate,season,topography.
For a combustion technology the quality of wood chips requires less than for a gasification technology. Inthegasification technology, wood fuel requires specific moisture content and size and sometimes also preferred feedstocke.
Therefore,additionaldrying,milling, chippingandscreeningareusedaspretreatments. The pretreatments of Lamtoro Gung wood to achieve the specification are drying, chippingandscreening. For a conversion system requires small sizes of wood as feedstock, the harvested wood can be chipped soon after harvesting.
Instead,felledtreescanbestoredin whole form for storage and drying, thereby reduces decomposition losses. Generally, it is known thatdrierwoodismoredifficulttochipandtoensureuniformsize. Moreover, high moisture content would reduce transportation efficiency and storage time durability. Transportation Transportation costs are the costs for transporting biomass from the forest landing to the power generationplant.
Thetotalnumberoftripsrequiredtotransportwoodybiomassisestimatedfromthetotalamount of woody biomass available in candidate sites, biomass density, and the freight of truck arrangement. This could anticipate seasonal variation in SumbaIslandwheredryseasonoccurnormallyfor8months fromApriltoNovember. Wood chips biomass could be stored outdoor in open area in piles. After field drying, outdoor storedwoodwouldbeexpectedtoonlyslightlyincreaseinmoisturecontentfromprecipitation.
Thefollowingsaretobeconsideredindesigningfuelstoragefacilities,whichinclude: storageareawhichisclosetotheselectedconversionsystem boilerorgasifier ,characteristicsof wood fuel to be stored, additional feedstock preparation requirements, backup storage capacity, seasonalweathervariation,andoperationalrequirementsoftheselectedconversiontechnology.
A fuel feeding system would transfer wood from storage facility to a selected conversion system. WoodybiomassfromLamtoroGungplantationsisassumedtobepurchasedfromathirdpartythat isappointedbylocalgovernmentwhichisalsoresponsibleforthemanagementoftheplantations andharvesting. Stumpage,forestoperationalcostsandbiomasstransportationcostsare the costs thatdetermineddeliveredcost.
To mitigate this potential problem, a just-in-time delivery system is used so that chips are seldom stored longer than 15 days and the pile height is held under 30 ft Springer ; McDonald and Twaddle Costcomponentofrevolvingloanfundasworkingcapital A.
Foodcropcost inaagroforestrypattern Ha 1,, TotalD 1,, E. Twooptionsareconsideredforwoodsupplyfromasupplier: Wooddeliveredtostoragefacilityintheformofwoodlog Inthis case,thepower plantinvestmentshouldincludefuelpretreatmentsfacility drying, chipping,andscreening. Wooddeliveredtostoragefacilityintheformofwoodchip Thewoodchipwouldbedeliveredfromaselectedsuppliertodeliverwoodchipeitherby the tons, volume or energy content, depending on what is stated in an agreement of fuel supply.
The supplier must provide wood chips according to the specification required for the selected technology. Consistencyinsizeandmoisturecontentaswellasacontinueamountofsupplyis priority. Therefore, fuel quality control is highly necessary for smooth operation of the power plant.
Aqualityassurancefromthesuppliershouldbeputintheagreementtoreducetroubles inoperatingthepowerplant. Biomass process would improve the characteristics of biomass as a fuel. The processes mainly involve the reduction of moisture content and improving characteristics of biomass. The energy content of biomass is utilized through one of following three processes: physical, biological and thermochemical, of which biological and thermochemical are outside the scope of this pre feasibility.
Physicalprocesses It is aimed at modification of the biomass feedstock to improve its fuel characteristics. Some methodsaregivenbelow:. Particlesizereduction: Biomasssizemodificationthroughchippingandfabricationintopelletsfacilitateseasystorage andtransportation. Thisalsohelpsinachievingfuelcharacteristicsrequiredforcombustionor gasificationtechnology.
Separation Screening : Separationprocesswouldberequired toscreenparticlesizeofbeyondthestandardforthe technologyadopted. Drying: Drying process would include vaporisation of all or part of the water in the feedstock. Solar drying is one of the cheapest methods. Reduction of water content shall reduce energy consumption. Binding agentssuchasthermoplasticresinscanbeusedformanufacturingpellets. Supplementarybiomass There is no supplementary biomass is considered for the proposed biomass power plant.
The biomassusedasfuelisonlyfromLamtoroGungwood. Biomassrisksmitigation Table5. Biomassrisksmitigationtobeconsidered Risks Mitigation Seasonal variation Feedstocksecurityofsupply Itisanticipatedthroughproviding climate Weather and seasonal variations alargebiomassbufferstocks.
Thiscouldanticipate seasonalvariationinSumbaIsland where dry season occur normally for 8 months. Wood can be harvested and stockpiled outdoors to warrant a continue fuel supply during monsoon or when harvesting activity is impossible.
Disease Woody biomass production is Energy plantation that is largely prone to plant disease which may depending on the production of loweritsproduction. Periodicalcheckingoftreeshealth wouldbeunavoidable. Fuelsupplycontract Risk of contract violation by biomass Allmainsuppliesarecontracted suppliers withinsurance.
Thisisto Woody biomass from Lamtoro providethemwiththeconceptof Gung tree designed as the the energy plantation for feedstock for the proposed project electricity generation that could is generally used by local benefit people of Sumba Island community in Sumba island as and in local economy cookingfuel.
Transportation Long distance from plantation to Estimation of economical distance power plant location, where road feasibility should include transportation is necessary, is sensitivity on among other fuel vulnerabletofuelpricevariation. This istoforeseetheprojectfeasibility duringtheprojectlifetime. Firerisk Woody biomass is also susceptible Lamtoro Gung energy plantation to fire risk, particularly during dry must be well protected from any season.
Also,biomassfacilitiesrequirefire protection measure. In the development planning, facility for fighting forestry fire hazard shouldbeconsideredaswell. Publicacceptance The public needs to be informed Stakeholders and local people and confident that bioenergy is need to be informed and environmentally and socially convinced that the project would beneficial and does not result in bringenvironmentallyandsocially significant negative environmental benefit and would not result in and social tradeoffs.
However, the negativeimpacts. Generally the conversion technologies are developed through the following conversion routes: thermochemical,physical,biochemicalandchemical. Combustion, pyrolysis and gasification are the three main thermo chemical processes which alter biomass physically and chemically through heating.
These processes depend on temperature, existenceofoxygenandresidencetime. Other two biomass conversion process technology considered are pyrolsis and cogeneration allowingsimultaneousgenerationofheatandpower CHP whichincreasesglobalefficiency. CFP usesacondensingextraction orbackpressure turbine. Aselectedwoodyplantspeciesforbioenergyplantationmusthavehighwoodcalorificvalue,ability toproducewoodofhighdensityandcapabilityforgrowingrapidlyonabroadrangeofsites.
These arerequiredparticularlyrelatedtothecombustionandgasification thermochemical processes. Biomassfuelssuchasthisspecieshavelowerdensitythanfossilfuels suchascoal,oilandgasoline.
Asaresult,atanequivalentenergybiomassfuelwouldrequirelarger volumetotransportthanthefossilfuels. Therefore,itisgenerallyrecommendedtohaveanenergy plantation close to the power plant utilizing biomass as fuel from the plantation as this would minimizethetransportationcost. Forthepurposeofthiereportisisassumedthatthepriceofbiomassis40USDpertononairdry base notwet,notdryweight. WoodusuallycontainsverysmallinorganicmatterssuchasalkaliandothercompoundssuchasS,P, Cl,N,Al,heavymetals.
Afteratotalcombustionofwood,theremaininginorganicmattersarecalled ash. Lamtoro Gung wood contains CombustionTechnology Among thermo chemical conversion technologies of biomass, direct combustion of biomass in a boileristhemostcommontechnologyappliedsofarforgeneratingelectricityandheatgeneration.
With this technology, combustion of biomass produces a hot flue gas which could be used for heating or producing steam for processing purpose or electricity generation. Combustion systems arecommerciallyavailabletechnologyranginginsizesfrom2kWtoMW. The most influencing biomass characteristics in the combustion process are moisture content, chemicalcompositionandenergycontent.
Themostcommonlyusedtypesofboilersforbiomasscombustionarestokerboilersandfluidized bedboilers. FixedbedcombustionBoiler Stoker Gratefurnaces This type furnace is suitable for high moisture content biomass fuels, varying particle sizes limitedtotheamountoffineparticlesinthefuelmixture ,andhighashcontent. The followings are specific technologies which include stoker boilers, fluidized bed boilers, and cofiring43 StokerBoiler Stoker boilers, the simplest boiler type having relatively small grate, employ direct fire combustion ofsolidfuelswithexcess air.
Hotflue gasesproduced generatessteamintheheat exchangesectionoftheboiler. Thesteamcouldbeuseddirectlyforheatingpurposesorpassed throughasteamturbinegeneratorforproducingelectricity. Underfeedstokers supplybothfuelandairfromunderthegrate,whileoverfeedstokerssupplyfuelfromabovethe. Underfeedsystemwith singlescrewcombustorsisavailableforcapacitiesupto2MWth,whilemultiplescrewcombustors upto6MWth.
Two types of overfeed stokers existsmass feed and spreader. In the mass feed stoker, fuel is continuously fed onto one end of the grate surface. Spreader stokers are the most commonly usedstokersbecauseoftheirversatility. Thoughspreaderstokersarethemostcommon stokers among larger woodfired boilers, overfeed and underfeed type stokers boiler are also appliedforsmallerunits44 Dustcombustion Inthissystemcombustiontakesplacewhilethefuelisinsuspensionandgasburnoutisachieved aftersecondaryairaddition.
Variations of these technologies are available. Examples are combustion systems with spreader stokers and cycloneburners. FluidizedBedBoilers Biomass is burnt in a mixed suspension of gas and solid bed material usually silica sand and dolomite influidizedbed. Theseplantsusuallyoperateat full load. The plants are of special interest for large scale applications normally larger than 30 MWth.
Fluidized bed boilers are categorized as either atmospheric or pressurized units.
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